Effects of Extrusion Conditions on the Physicochemical Properties of Extruded Red Ginseng

  • Gui, Ying (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University) ;
  • Gil, Sun-Kuk (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University) ;
  • Ryu, Gi-Hyung (Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University)
  • Received : 2012.07.03
  • Accepted : 2012.07.30
  • Published : 2012.09.30


The effects of variable moisture content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the physicochemical properties of red ginseng powder extrudates were investigated. The raw red ginseng powders were processed in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder. Primary extrusion variables were feed moisture content (20 and 30%), screw speed (200 and 250 rpm) and barrel temperature (115 and $130^{\circ}C$). Extruded red ginseng showed higher crude saponin contents (6.72~7.18%) than raw red ginseng (5.50%). Tested extrusion conditions did not significantly affect the crude saponin content of extrudates. Increased feed moisture content resulted in increased bulk density, specific length, water absorption index (WAI), breaking strength, elastic modulus and crude protein content and decreased water solubility index (WSI) and expansion (p<0.05). Increased barrel temperature resulted in increased total sugar content, but decreased reducing sugar content in the extrudate (p<0.05). Furthermore, increased barrel temperature resulted in increased amino acid content and specific length and decreased expansion and bulk density of extrudates only at a higher feed moisture content. The physicochemical properties of extrudates were mainly dependent on the feed moisture content and barrel temperature, whereas the screw speed showed a lesser effect. These results will be used to help define optimized process conditions for controlling and predicting qualities and characteristics of extruded red ginseng.


  1. Kang KS, Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Park JH. 2006. Study on the nitric oxide scavenging effects of ginseng and its compounds. J Agric Food Chem 54: 2558-2562.
  2. An YE, Ahn SC, Yang DC, Park SJ, Kim BY, Baik MY. 2011. Chemical conversion of ginsenosides in puffed red ginseng. LWT-Food Sci Technol 44: 370-374.
  3. Bae E, Han MJ, Choo M, Park S, Kim D. 2002. Metabolism of 20(S)-and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 by human intestinal bacteria and its relation to in vitro biological activities. Biol Pharm Bull 25: 58-63.
  4. Nam KY. 2005. The comparative understanding between red ginseng and white ginsengs processed ginsengs (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). J Ginseng Res 29: 1-18.
  5. Kim WY, Kim JM, Han SB, Lee SK, Kim ND, Park MK, Kim CK, Park JH. 2000. Steaming of ginseng at high temperature enhances biological activity. J Nat Prod 63: 1702- 1704.
  6. Serge EO, Gu BJ, Kim YS, Ryu GH. 2011. Effects of feed moisture and barrel temperature on physical and pasting properties of cassava starch extrudate. Korean J Food Preserv 18: 271-278.
  7. Matz SA. 1959. The chemistry and technology of cereals as food and feed. AVI Publishing Company Inc., Westport, CT, USA.
  8. Ryu GH. 2007. Recent trend in red ginseng manufacturing process and characteristics of extruded red ginseng. Food Eng Prog 11: 1-10.
  9. Ha DC, Lee IW, Ryu GH. 2005. Change in ginsenosides and maitol in dried raw ginseng during extrusion process. Korean Soc Food Sci Biotechnol 14: 363-367.
  10. Ryu GH. 2006. Microstructure and antioxidant activity of red, white and extruded ginseng. J Food Sci Nutr 11: 61- 66.
  11. Ha DC, Lee JW, Ryu GH. 2005. Effect of barrel temperature and screw speed on characteristics of extruded raw ginseng. J Ginseng Res 29: 107-112.
  12. Han CK, Hong HD, Kim YC, Kim SS, Sim GS. 2007. Effect of puffing on quality characteristics of red ginseng tail root. J Ginseng Res 31: 147-153.
  13. AOAC. 2005. Official methods of analysis of AOAC international. 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.
  14. Bhatnagar S, Hanna MA. 1995. Physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of starch-based plastic foams. Trans ASAE 38: 567-571.
  15. Anderson RA, Conway HF, Pfeifer VF, Griffin EL. 1969. Roll and extrusion-cooking of grain sorghum grits. Cereal Sci Today 14: 372-375.
  16. Ryu GH, Ng PKW. 2001. Effect of selected process on expansion and mechanical properties on wheat flour and cornmeal extrudates. Strach/Starke 53: 147-154.<147::AID-STAR147>3.0.CO;2-V
  17. Ando T, Tanaka O, Shibata S. 1971. Chemical studies on the oriental plant drugs (XXV). Comparative studies on the saponins and sapogenins of ginseng and relate crude drugs. Soyakugaku Zasshi 25: 28-33.
  18. Namba T, Yoshizaki M, Tominori T, Kobashi K, Matsui K, Hase J. 1974. Fundamental studies on the evaluation of the crude drugs. III. Chemical and biochemical evaluation of ginsengs and related crude drugs. Yakugaku Zasshi 94: 252-259.
  19. Dubois M, Gillers KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F. 1956. Colormetric method for determination of sugar and related substance. Anal Chem 28: 350-352.
  20. Miller GL. 1959. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Anal Chem 31: 426-428.
  21. Doi E, Shibata D, Matoba T. 1981. Modified colorimetric ninhydrin method for peptidase assay. Anal Biochem 118: 173-184.
  22. Hagenimana A, Ding XL, Fang T. 2006. Evaluation of rice flour modified by extrusion cooking. J Cereal Sci 43: 38-46.
  23. PanmanaBhan M, Bhattachayrya M. 1989. Extrudate expansion during extrusion cooking of foods. Cereal Food World 34: 945-949.
  24. Alvarez-Martinez L, Kondury KP, Harper JM. 1988. A general model for expansion of extruded products. J Food Sci 53: 609-615.
  25. Fletcher SI, Richmond P, Smith AC. 1985. An experimental study of twin-screw extrusion cooking of maize grits. J Food Eng 4: 291-312.
  26. Anderson RA, Conway HF, Pfeifer VF, Griffin EL. 1969. Gelatinization of corn grits by roll and extrusion cooking. Cereal Sci Today 14: 4-12.
  27. Kirby AR, Ollett AL, Parker R, Smith AC. 1988. An experimental study of screw configuration effects in the twin-screw extrusion-cooking of maize grits. J Food Eng 8: 247-272.
  28. Mercier C, Feillet P. 1975. Modification of carbohydrate component by extrusion cooking of cereal product. Cereal Chem 52: 283-297.
  29. Chen J, Serafin FL, Pandya RN, Dau H. 1991. Effects of extrusion conditions on sensory properties of corn meal extrudates. J Food Sci 56: 84-89.
  30. Kim BS, Ryu GH. 2005. Effect of die temperature and dimension on extract characteristics of extruded white ginseng. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 34: 544-548.
  31. Yoon SR. Lee MH, Park JH. 2005. Changes in physicochemical compounds with heating treatment of ginseng. J Korean Soc Food Sci Food Nutr 34: 1572-1578.
  32. Han JY, Chung KH, Ryu GH. 2008. Comparison of physicochemical properties and release characteristics of extruded tissue cultured mountain ginseng. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 1018-1024.
  33. Kim MH, Tungjaroenchai W, Ryu GH. 2007. Effect of germination time and extrusion temperature on properties of germinated brown rice. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36: 636-642.
  34. Shivendra S, Lara W, Shirani G. 2007. Retention of essential amino acids during extrusion of protein and reducing sugar. J Agric Food Chem 55: 8779-8786.

Cited by

  1. Effects of protein-lipid and starch-lipid complexes on textural characteristics of extrudates based on wheat flour with the addition of oleic acid vol.51, pp.5, 2016,
  2. Potential Neuroprotective Activity of Ginseng in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review vol.10, pp.1, 2015,
  3. Influences of Die Temperature and Repeated Extrusion on Physical Properties of Extruded White Ginseng vol.44, pp.6, 2015,
  4. ‘The effect of inulin addition on structural and textural properties of extruded products under several extrusion conditions’ vol.52, pp.10, 2015,
  5. Effects of extrusion cooking on physicochemical properties of white and red ginseng (powder) vol.38, pp.2, 2014,
  6. Physical properties of supercritical fluid extrusion products composed of milk protein concentrate with carbohydrates vol.53, pp.3, 2017,
  7. Enrichment of rice-based extrudates with Cactus Opuntia dillenii seed powder: a novel source of fiber and antioxidants vol.55, pp.2, 2018,
  8. ) noodles pp.20487177, 2018,
  9. Properties of Starch after Extrusion: A Review pp.00389056, 2018,