Antimicrobial Activity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts on Gram-Negative Food-borne Pathogens

  • Kim, Seong-Yeong (Nutrition Education, Graduate School of Education, Kyonggi University) ;
  • Shin, Kwang-Soon (Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyonggi University)
  • Received : 2012.06.21
  • Accepted : 2012.08.15
  • Published : 2012.09.30


Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were prepared from different solvents, water (TW), ethanol (TE), and n-hexane (TH), and assessed for their antimicrobial activities against six gram-negative food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli KCTC 1039, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 3311, Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 11862, Shigella sonnei KCTC 2518, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802). Among the tested TSEs, TE and TH showed a slight inhibition activity on V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802, but a good growth inhibition activity on Sal. Typhimurium KCCM 11862. TH and TE showed steady growth inhibition activity with increasing growth time after 6 hr when compared to the control (p<0.05). From these results, we confirmed the possibility of TH and TE as antimicrobial materials.


  1. Farag RS, Badei AZ, Heweij FM, El-Baroty GSA. 1986. Antioxidant activity of some spices essential oils on linoleic acid oxidation in aqueous media. J Am Oil Chem Soc 66: 792-799.
  2. Gil MI, Tom'as-Barber'an FA, Hess-Pierce B, Holcroft DM, Kader AA. 2000. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. J Agric Food Chem 48: 4581-4589.
  3. Roy A, Saraf S. 2006. Overview of significant bioactive triterpenes distributed in plants kingdom. Biol Pharm Bull 29: 191-201.
  4. Spreen TH. 2003. Projections of world production and consumption of citrus to 2010. Fruit Proc 13: 378-384.
  5. Coombe BG. 1989. The grape berry as a sink. Acta Hortic 239: 149-158.
  6. Ionescu G, Kiehl R, Wichmann-Kunz F, Williams CH, Bauml LM, Levine S. 1990. Oral citrus seed extract. J Orthomol Med 5: 230-238.
  7. Tauxe RV. 2002. Emerging foodborne pathogens. Int J Food Microbiol 78: 31-41.
  8. Orden JA, Cid D, Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria JA, Garcia S, Martinez S, De la Fuente R. 2002. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) enteropatogenic E. coli (EPEC) and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC) isolated from healthy cattle in Spain. J Appl Microbiol 93: 29-35.
  9. Kemp GK, Aldrich ML, Waldroup AL. 2000. Acidified sodium chlorite antimicrobial treatment of broiler carcasses. J Food Prot 63: 1087-1092.
  10. Vercet A, Lopez P, Burgos J. 1998. Free radical production by manothermosonication. Ultrasonics 36: 615-618.
  11. Tian Q, Miller EG, Ahmad H, Tang L, Patil BS. 2001. Differential inhibition of human cancer cell proliferation by citrus limonoids. Nutr Cancer 40: 180-184.
  12. Dorman HJ, Deans SG. 2000. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol 88: 308-316.
  13. Fisher K, Rowe C, Phillips CA. 2007. The survival of three strains of Arcobacter butzleri in the presence of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components in vitro and on food. Lett Appl Microbiol 44: 495-499.
  14. Saito M, Hosoyama H, Ariga T, Kataoka S, Yamaji N. 1998. Antiulcer activity of grape seed extract and procyanidins. J Agric Food Chem 46: 1460-1464.
  15. Shoko T, Soichi T, Megumi MM, Eri F, Jun K, Michiko W. 1999. Isolation and identification of an antibacterialcompound from grape and its application to food. Biosci Biotechnol Agrochem 73: 125-128.
  16. Heggers JP, Cottingham J, Gusman J, Reagor L, Mccoy L, Carino E, Cox R, Zhao JG. 2002. The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent. I. Mechanism of action and in vitro toxicity. J Altern Complement Med 8: 333-340.
  17. Stine SW, Song I, Choi CY, Gerba CP. 2005. Effect of relative humidity on preharvest survival of bacterial and viral pathogens on the surface of cantaloupe, lettuce, and bell peppers. J Food Protect 68: 1352-1358.
  18. Bharathi S, Ramesh MN, Varadaraj MC. 2001. Predicting the behavioural pattern of Escherichia coli in minimally processed vegetables. Food Control 12: 275-284.
  19. Brackett R. 1999. Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce. Postharvest Biol Technol 15: 305-311.
  20. McClements J. 2005. Food emulsions. In Principles, Practices and Techniques. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. p 83-124.