Identifying Suspended Particulate Matters in an Urban Coastal System: Significance and Application of Particle Size Analysis

Ahn, Jong-Ho

  • 투고 : 2012.01.21
  • 심사 : 2012.08.20
  • 발행 : 2012.09.30


In situ particle size spectra are obtained from two sequent cruises in order to evaluate the physical consequences of suspended particulate matters caused by episodic storm runoff from the Santa Ana River watershed, an urbanized coastal watershed. Suspended particles from various sources including surface runoff, near-bed resuspension, and phytoplankton are identified in empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and an entropy-based parameterization (Shannon entropy). The first EOF mode is associated with high turbidity and fine particles as indicated by the elevated beam attenuation near the Santa Ana River and Newport Bay outlets, and the second EOF mode explains the suspended sediment dispersal and particle coarsening at the near-surface plume. Chlorophyll particles are also distinguished by negative magnitudes of the first EOF mode, which is supported by the relationship between fluorescence and beam attenuation. The integrated observation between the first EOF mode and the Shannon entropy index accentuates the characteristics of two different structures and/or sources of sediment particles; the near-surface plumes are originated from runoff water outflow, while the near-bottom particles are resuspended due to increased wave heights or mobilizing bottom turbidity currents. In a coastal pollution context, these methods may offer useful means of characterizing particle-associated pollutants for purposes of source tracking and environmental interpretation.


Empirical orthogonal function;Particle size spectra;Shannon entropy;Storm runoff water;Suspended particulate matter


  1. Wiberg PL, Smith JD. Calculations of the critical shear stress for motion of uniform and heterogeneous sediments. Water Resour. Res. 1987;23:1471-1480.
  2. Syvitski JP, Smith JN, Calabrese EA, Boudreau BP. Basin sedimentation and the growth of prograding deltas. J. Geophys. Res. 1988;93:6895-6908.
  3. Orton GJ, Reading HG. Variability of deltaic processes in terms of sediment supply, with particular emphasis on grain size. Sedimentology 1993;40:475-512.
  4. Wright LD, Nittrouer CA. Dispersal of river sediments in coastal seas: six contrasting cases. Estuaries 1995;18:494-508.
  5. Geyer WR, Hill PS, Kineke GC. The transport, transformation and dispersal of sediment by buoyant coastal flows. Cont. Shelf Res. 2004;24:927-949.
  6. Dal Cin R. The use of factor analysis in determining beach erosion and accretion from grain-size data. Mar. Geol. 1976;20:95-116.
  7. Chambers RL, Upchurch SB. Multivariate analysis of sedimentary environments using grain-size frequency distributions. J. Int. Assoc. Math. Geol. 1979;11:27-43.
  8. Syvitski JP. Principles, Methods and application of particle size analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1991.
  9. Tanner WF. Modification of sediment size distributions. J. Sediment. Res. 1964;34:156-164.
  10. Bader H. The Hyperbolic distribution of particle sizes. J. Geophys. Res. 1970;75:2282-2830.
  11. Lal D, Lerman A. Size spectra of biogenic particles in ocean water and sediments. J. Geophys. Res. 1975;80:423-430.
  12. Tyler SW, Wheatcraft SW. Fractal scaling of soil particle-size distributions: analysis and limitations. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1992;56:362-369.
  13. Wu Q, Borkovec M, Sticher H. On particle-size distributions in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 1993;57:883-890.
  14. Kranck K, Smith PC, Milligan TG. Grain-size characteristics of fine-grained unflocculated sediments I: 'one-round' distributions. Sedimentology 1996;43:589-594.
  15. Washburn L, Jones BH, Bratkovich A, Dickey TD, Chen MS. Mixing, dispersion, and resuspension in vicinity of ocean wastewater plume. J. Hydraul. Eng. 1992;118:38-58.
  16. Wu Y, Washburn L, Jones BH. Buoyant plume dispersion in a coastal environment: evolving plume structure and dynamics. Cont. Shelf Res. 1994;14:1001-1023.
  17. Petrenko AA, Jones BH, Dickey TD, LeHaitre M, Moore C. Effects of a sewage plume on the biology, optical characteristics, and particle size distributions of coastal waters. J. Geophys. Res. 1997;102:25061-25071.
  18. Jones BH, Noble MA, Dickey TD. Hydrographic and particle distributions over the Palos Verdes Continental Shelf: spatial, seasonal and daily variability. Cont. Shelf Res. 2002;22:945- 965.
  19. Grant SB, Sanders BF, Boehm AB, et al. Generation of enterococci bacteria in a coastal saltwater marsh and its impact on surf zone water quality. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001;35:2407- 2416.
  20. Reeves RL, Grant SB, Mrse RD, Copil Oancea CM, Sanders BF, Boehm AB. Scaling and management of fecal indicator bacteria in runoff from a coastal urban watershed in southern California. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004;38:2637-2648.
  21. Ahn JH, Grant SB, Surbeck CQ, DiGiacomo PM, Nezlin NP, Jiang S. Coastal water quality impact of stormwater runoff from an urban watershed in southern California. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2005;39:5940-5953.
  22. Agrawal YC, Pottsmith HC. Instruments for particle size and settling velocity observations in sediment transport. Mar. Geol. 2000;168:89-114.
  23. Davis JC. Statistics and data analysis in geology. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1973.
  24. Emery WJ, Thomson RE. Data analysis methods in physical oceanography. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2001.
  25. Shannon CE. A mathematical theory of communication. Bell Syst. Tech. J. 1948;27:623-656.
  26. Martin MA, Taguas FJ. Fractal modelling, characterization and simulation of particle-size distributions in soil. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 1998;454:1457-1468.
  27. Martin MA, Rey JM, Taguas FJ. An entropy-based parametrization of soil texture via fractal modelling of particle-size distribution. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 2001;457:937- 947.
  28. Montero E. Renyi dimensions analysis of soil particle-size distributions. Ecol. Modell. 2005;182:305-315.
  29. Ahn JH, Grant SB. Characteristics of storm runoff and sediment dispersal in the San Pedro Channel, southern California. Water Sci Technol. 2007;55:519-526.
  30. Traykovski P, Geyer WR, Irish JD, Lynch JF. The role of waveinduced density-driven fluid mud flows for cross-shelf transport on the Eel River continental shelf. Cont. Shelf Res. 2000;20:2113-2140.

피인용 문헌

  1. Environmental Engineering Research in September 2012 vol.17, pp.3, 2012,


연구 과제 주관 기관 : National Water Resource Institute, US Geological Survey National Institutes for Water Research