CT Scan Findings of Rabbit Brain Infection Model and Changes in Hounsfield Unit of Arterial Blood after Injecting Contrast Medium

토끼 뇌감염 모델의 CT 소견과 조영제 주입 후 동맥혈의 Hounsfield Unit의 변화

  • 하본철 (중앙대학교 의과대학 의학과/중앙대학교병원 영상의학과) ;
  • 곽병국 (중앙대학교 의과대학 의학과/중앙대학교병원 영상의학과) ;
  • 정지성 (중앙대학교 의과대학 의학과/중앙대학교병원 임상의학연구소)
  • Received : 2012.07.05
  • Accepted : 2011.08.20
  • Published : 2012.09.28


This paper explores CT findings of a rabbit brain infection model injected with Escherichia coli and investigates the changes in Hounsfield unit (HU) of arterial blood over time. The brain infection model was produced by injecting E. coli $1{\times}10^7$ CFU/ml, 0.1 ml through the burr hole in the calvarium; 2~3 mm in depth from the dura mater, and contrast-enhanced CT, dynamic CT and arterial blood CT images were gained. It was found that various brain infections such as brain abscess, ventriculitis and meningitis. The CT image of brain abscess showed a typical pattern which the peripheral area was strongly contrast-enhanced while the center was weakly contrast-enhanced. The CT image of ventriculitis showed a strong contrast-enhancement along the lateral ventricle wall, and the CT image of meningitis showed a strong contrast-enhancement in the area between the telencephalon and the diencephalon. In dynamic CT images, the HU value of the infection core before injecting contrast medium was $31.01{\pm}3.55$. By 10 minutes after the injection, the value increased gradually to $40.36{\pm}3.76$. The HU value in the areas of the marginal rim where was hyper-enhanced showed $47.23{\pm}3.12$ before contrast injection, and it increased to $63.59{\pm}3.31$ about 45 seconds after the injection. In addition, the HU value of the normal brain tissue opposite to the E. coli. injected brain was $39.01{\pm}3.24$ before the injection, but after the contrast injection, the value increased to $49.01{\pm}4.29$ in about 30 seconds, and then it showed a gradual decline. In the arterial blood CT, the HU value before the contrast injection was $87.78{\pm}6.88$, and it increased dramatically between 10 to 30 seconds until it reached a maximum value of $749.13{\pm}98.48$. Then it fell sharply to $467.85{\pm}62.98$ between 30 seconds to 45 seconds and reached a plateau by 60 seconds. Later, the value showed a steady decrease and indicated $188.28{\pm}25.03$ at 20 minutes. Through this experiment, it was demonstrated that the brain infection model can be produced by injecting E. coli., and the characteristic of the infection model can be well observed with contrast-enhanced CT scan. The dynamic CT scan showed that the center of the infection was gradually contrast-enhanced, whereases the peripheral area was rapidly contrast-enhanced and then slowly decreased. As for arterial blood, it increased significantly between 10 seconds to 30 seconds after the contrast medium injection and decreased gradually after reaching a plateau.


Brain Infection;Escherichia Coli;Enhanced Brain CT;Dynamic Brain CT


Supported by : 한국산업기술재단, 한국연구재단


  1. J. D. Beckham and K. L. Tyler, "Neuro-intensive care of patients with acute CNS infections," Neurotherapeutics, Vol.9, No.1, pp.124-138, 2012.
  2. T. E. Ratnaike, S. Das, B. A. Gregson, and A. D. Mendelow, "A review of brain abscess surgical treatment-78 years: aspiration versus excision," World Neurosurg, Vol.76, No.5, pp.431-436, 2011.
  3. G. P. DeMuri and E. R. Wald, "Complications of acute bacterial sinusitis in children," Pediatr Infect Dis J, Vol.30, No.8, pp.701-702, 2011.
  4. G. E, Mathisen and J, Patrick Johnson, "Brain Abscess," Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol.25, No.4, pp.763-779, 1997.
  5. C. Ostergaard, C. Brandt, H. B. Konradsen, and S. Samuelsson, "Differences in survival, brain damage, and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine kinetics due to meningitis caused by 3 different Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes: evaluation in humans and in 2 experimental models," J Infect Dis, Vol.190, No.7, pp.1212-1220, 2004.
  6. M. G. Täuber, R. A. Brooks-Fournier, and M. A. Sande, "Experimental models of CNS infections. Contributions to concepts of disease and treatment," Neurol Clin, Vol.4, No.1, pp.249-264, 1986.
  7. W. M. Scheld, J. P. Brodeur, P. A. Foresman, J. C. Gratz, and G. T. Rodeheaver, "Comparative evaluation of aztreonam in therapy for experimental bacterial meningitis and cerebritis," Rev Infect Dis, Vol.7, No.4, pp.635-647, 1985.
  8. W. M. Scheld, J. P. Brodeur, J. C. Gratz, P. Foresman, and G. Rodeheaver, "Evaluation of aztreonam in experimental bacterial meningitis and cerebritis," Antimicrob Agents Chemother, Vol.24, No.5, pp.682-688, 1983.
  9. 이채혁, 임근호, 이정희, 권병덕, "흰쥐 뇌농양 모델에서 농양 형성단계에 따른 양자자기공명 분광상의 변화," J Korean Neurosurg Soc, Vol.28, pp.1429-1439, 1999.
  10. M. R. Machein, J. Kullmer, B. L. Fiebich, K. H. Plate, and P. C. Warnke, "Vascular endothelial growth factor expression, vascular volume, and, capillary permeability in human brain tumors," Neurosurgery, Vol.44, No.4, pp.732-740, 1999.
  11. K. Lee, K. Yamada, R. Tsuneda, M. Kishimoto, J. Shimizu, Y. Kobayashi, H. Furuoka, T. Matsui, N. Sasaki, M. Ishii, H. Inokuma, T. Iwasaki, and Y. Miyake, "Clinical experience of using multidetector-row CT for the diagnosis of disorders in cattle," Vet Rec, Vol.7, No.19, pp.559-562, 2009.
  12. S. El-Khodery, K. Yamada, D. Aoki, K. Kamio, M. Kishimoto, J. Shimizu, Y. Kobayashi, M. Ishii, H. Inokuma, S. Yamauchi, and T. Matsui, "Brain abscess in a Japanese black calf: utility of computed tomography (CT)," J Vet Med Sci, Vol.70, No.7, pp.727-730, 2008.
  13. J. Arbizu, P. D. Domínguez, R. Diez-Valle, C. Vigil , R. García-Eulate, J. L. Zubieta, and J. A. Richter, "Neuroimaging in brain tumors," Rev Esp Med Nucl, Vol.30, No.1, pp.47-65, 2011.
  14. O. Kastrup, J. Wanke, and M. Maschke, "Neuroimaging of infections," NeuroRx, Vol.2, No.2, pp.324-332, 2005.
  15. 하본철, 임청환, "흰쥐 광 혈전 뇌경색 모델에서 줄기세포 추적을 위한 자화강조영상", 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제10권, 제8호, pp.249-256, 2010.
  16. 이상호, 임청환, 정홍량, 한범희, 모은희, 채규윤, "마이크로 CT를 이용한 BALB/C(흰쥐) 간문맥의 미세혈관 조영 영상", 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 제10권, 제9호, pp.259-266, 2010.
  17. D. R. Groothuis, F. J. Vriesendorp, B. Kupfer, P. C. Warnke, G. D. Lapin, A. Kuruvilla, N. A. Vick, Mikhael MA, and Patlak CS, "Quantitative measurements of capillary transport in human brain tumors by computed tomography," Ann Neurol, Vol.30, No.4, pp.581-588, 1991.
  18. N. Luciani, A. Anselmi, F. Glieca, G. Lauria, R. de Geest, and G. Possati, "Femoral cannulation with long arterial cannula in aortic dissection," Ann Thorac Surg, Vol.93, No.2, pp.45-47, 2012.
  19. M. B. Fukui, R. L. Williams, and S. Mudigonda, "CT and MR imaging features of pyogenic ventriculitis," AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, Vol.22, No.8, pp.1510-1516, 2001.
  20. M. Blanchette and D. Fortin, "Blood-brain barrier disruption in the treatment of brain tumors," Methods Mol Biol, Vol.686, pp.447-463, 2011.
  21. V. Lakshmi, P. Umabala, K. Anuradha, K. Padmaja, C. Padmasree, A. Rajesh, and A. K. Purohit, "Microbiological spectrum of brain abscess at a tertiary care hospital in South India: 24-year data and review," Patholog Res Int, Vol.5, pp.831-839, 2011.
  22. R. D. Zimmerman and K. Weingarten, "Neuroimaging of cerebral abscess," Neuroimaging Clin N Amer, Vol.1, pp.1-16, 1991.
  23. D. R. Enzmann, R. H. Britt, and A. S. Yeager, "Experimental brain abscess evaluation: computed tomographic and neuropathologic correlation," Radiol, Vol.133, pp.113-122, 1979.
  24. 임형택, 최우석, 김의종, 윤 엽, 곽정호, 나동규, " 자기공명영상에서 뇌 농양벽의 신호강도 : T2, 양자 농도 강조영상 및 FLAIR 영상을 중심으로", 대한방사선의학회지, Vol.42, pp.9-14, 2000.
  25. J. B. Nguyen, B. R. Black, M. M. Leimkuehler, V. Halder, J. V. Nguyen, and N. Ahktar, "Intracranial pyogenic abscess: imaging diagnosis utilizing recent advances in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging," Crit Rev Comput Tomogr, Vol.45, No.3, pp.181-224, 2004.