DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Comparison of Property Changes of Black Jujube and Zizyphus jujube Extracts during Lactic Acid Fermentation

흑대추와 일반 건조대추의 추출 및 유산발효과정 중 특성 변화

  • Auh, Mi Sun (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Kim, Yi Seul (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Ahn, Seung Joon (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Ahn, Jun Bae (Dept. of Food Service Industry, Seowon University) ;
  • Kim, Kwang Yup (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Chungbuk National University)
  • 어미선 (충북대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 김이슬 (충북대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 안승준 (충북대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 안준배 (서원대학교 외식산업학과) ;
  • 김광엽 (충북대학교 식품공학과)
  • Received : 2012.06.04
  • Accepted : 2012.09.07
  • Published : 2012.10.31

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of black jujube and Zizyphus jujube extracts during lactic acid fermentation. Both extracts were fermented using Lactobacillus fermentum YL-3. As a result, viable cell number rapidly increased until 24 hours, after which it gradually decreased. Before lactic acid fermentation, the $IC_{50}$ of black jujube, which was 0.014 mg/mL, was lower than that of Zizyphus jujube. Further, black jujube showed stronger antioxidant activity (374.21 mg AA eq/g) than Zizyphus jujube. Contents of total polyphenolics in both extracts were 15.46 mg/g and 13.61 mg/g, respectively, whereas contents of total flavonoids were 374.21 ${\mu}g/g$ and 64.25 ${\mu}g/g$. After lactic acid fermentation, there was no significant increase in DPPH or ABTS free radical scavenging activity. Total polyphenolic content of Zizyphus jujube decreased to 12.39 mg/g upon fermentation, whereas flavonoid content significantly increased to 291.58 ${\mu}g/g$. Further, polyphenolic and flavonoid contents of black jujube increased from 15.46 mg/g to 17.46 mg/g and from 374.21 ${\mu}g/g$ to 1,135.29 ${\mu}g/g$, respectively. These results demonstrate that 9-Times Steamed and Dried increased functional components. Especially, lactic acid fermented black jujube showed remarkably high antioxidant activity. These results confirm the potential use of lactic acid fermented black jujube as a valuable resource for the development of functional foods.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 충북대학교

References

  1. Kwon SR, Kim HG, Ham IH, Lee JJ, Lee JH, Hong SP, Kim DH, Choi HY. 2007. Studies on the changes of oligosaccharide contents in Rehmanniae Radix Preparata according to various processing methods. Kor J Herbol 22: 261-270.
  2. Ma JY, Ha CS, Sung HJ, Zee OP. 2000. Hemopoietic effects of Rhizoma Rehmanniae Preparata on cyclophosphamideinduced pernicious anemia in rats. Kor J Pharmacogn 31: 325-334.
  3. Kim SN, Kang SJ. 2009. Effects of black ginseng (9 timessteaming ginseng) on hypoglycemic action and changes in the composition of ginsenosides on the steaming process. Korean J Food Sci Technol 41: 77-81.
  4. Kim DW, Lee YJ, Min JW, Kim YJ, No YD, Yang DC. 2009. Conversion of acidic polysaccharide and phenolic compound of changed ginseng by 9 repetitive steaming and drying process, and its effects of antioxidation. Korean J Oriental Physiol Pathol 23: 121-126.
  5. Yu MH, Im HG, Lee HJ, Ji YJ, Lee IS. 2006. Components and their antioxidative activities of methanol extracts from sarcocarp and seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis Rehder. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38: 128-134.
  6. Ann YG, Kim SK, Shin CS. 1997. Sugars in Korean jujube fruit and jujube fruit drink. Korean J Food & Nutr 10: 314-319.
  7. Park BH, Chae KY, Hong JS. 2008. Physicochemical characteristics of jujube concentrates prepared by boiling. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 18: 190-197.
  8. Yook CS. 1972. Screening test on the components of the genus Zizyphus in Korea. Korean J Pharmacog 3: 27-29.
  9. Lee SK. 1989. Studies on the constituents of the leaves of Zizyphus jujuba Mill. PhD Dissertation. Pusan National University, Pusan, Korea.
  10. Park MK, Park JH, Shin YG, Cho KH, Han BH, Park MH. 1991. Analysis of alkaloids in the seeds Zizyphus jujuba by high performance liquid chromatography. Arch Pharmacal Res 14: 99-102. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02892010
  11. Cho MK, Kim K, Kim CH, Lee TG, Kim KY. 2000. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus fermentum YL-3 as a poultry probiotic. Kor J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 28: 279-284.
  12. AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA. p 32-1-13.
  13. Kwon YJ, Jang GC, Rah HH, Kim YH, Rhee MS. 2005. The study of sugar analysis in licorice extract by HPLC. J Korean Soc Tobacco Sci 27: 114-119.
  14. Woo KS, Lee SH, Noh JW, Hwang IG, Lee YR, Park HJ, Lee JS, Kang TS, Jeong HS. 2009. Optimization of extraction conditions for dried jujube by response surface methodology. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 38: 244-251. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2009.38.2.244
  15. Jeong HM, Kim YS, Ahn SJ, Auh MS, Ahn JB, Kim KY. 2011. Effects of Zizyphus jujuba var. boeunesis extracts on the growth of intestinal microflora and its antioxidant activities. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 40: 500-508. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.4.500
  16. Hagerman A, Harvey-Mueller I, Makkar HPS. 2000. Quantification of tannins in tree foliage a laboratory manual. FAO/IAEA, Vienna, Austria.
  17. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 64: 555-559. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00102-2
  18. Dewanto V, Wu X, Liu RH. 2002. Processed sweet corn has higher antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 50: 4959-4964. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0255937
  19. Choi SY, Cho HS, Sung NJ. 2006. The antioxidative and nitrite scavenging ability of solvent extracts from wild grape (Vitis coignetiea) skin. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 35: 961-966. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2006.35.8.961
  20. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying and improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26: 1231-1237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3
  21. Sim DW. 2011. Studies on the process method and quality of black jujube. Daegu Haany University, Daegu, Korea.
  22. Park NY, Lee GD, Jeong YJ, Kwon JH. 1998. Optimization of extraction conditions for physicochemical properties of ethanol extracts from Chrysanthemum boreale . J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 27: 585-590.
  23. Lim TS, Do JR, Kwon OJ, Kim HK. 2007. Monitoring on extraction yields and functional properties of onion (Allium cepa) extracts by using response surface methodology. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36: 105-110. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.1.105
  24. Park JW, Kim HS, Park IB, Shin GW, Lee YJ, Jo YC. 2009. Optimization of ethanol extraction conditions from glasswort (Salicornia herbacea) using response surface methodology. Korean J Food Preserv 16: 376-384.
  25. Kang KC, Park JH, Back SB, Jhin HS, Rhee KS. 1992. Optimization of beverage preperation from Schizandra chinensis Baillon by response surface methodology. Korean J Food Sci Technol 24: 74-81.
  26. Woo KS, Lee SH, Noh JW, Hwang IG, Lee YR, Park HJ, Lee JS, Kang TS, Jeong HS. 2009. Optimization of extraction conditions for dried jujube by response surface methodology. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 38: 244-251. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2009.38.2.244
  27. Bae YK, Choe TB. 2011. Antioxidant and cell activity using extracts of Mume fructus. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 19: 388-394. https://doi.org/10.7783/KJMCS.2011.19.5.388
  28. Mo JH, Kim KR. 2011. The proximate and antioxidative effect of dried and fermented Salicornia herbacea. Korean J Soc Cosmetol 7: 425-431.
  29. Kwon GH, Choi DS, Wang MH. 2007. Biological activities of hot water extracts from Euonymus alatus leaf. Korean J Food Sci Technol 39: 569-574.
  30. Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26: 1231-1237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3

Cited by

  1. Antioxidative Activity of Mushroom Water Extracts Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria vol.43, pp.1, 2014, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2014.43.1.080
  2. Comparison of quality characteristics of Platycodon grandiflorum according to steaming and fermentation vol.22, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2015.22.6.851
  3. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Espresso Coffee Prepared with Green Bean Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria vol.45, pp.12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2016.45.12.1799
  4. Quality properties of fermented mugworts and the rapid pattern analysis of their volatile flavor components via surface acoustic wave (SAW) based electronic nose sensor in the GC system vol.20, pp.4, 2013, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2013.20.4.554