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Pharmacological Activity of Chaga Mushroom on Extraction Conditions and Immunostimulating Polysaccharide

추출조건에 따른 차가버섯 생리활성 및 면역활성 다당

  • Received : 2012.06.19
  • Accepted : 2012.07.04
  • Published : 2012.10.31

Abstract

To investigate the pharmacological activity of chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) on extraction conditions, chaga was extracted using water (reflux at $50^{\circ}C$, decoction over $90^{\circ}C$, pressure at $121^{\circ}C$) or ethanol (reflux at 50, 70, or $90^{\circ}C$). When water extract was further fractionated into crude polysaccharide (IO-CP), yields of IO-CP (4.8~16.8%) were higher than those of ethanolic extracts (IO-E, 1.9~2.7%) at increased temperature. For antioxidant activity, crude polysaccharide (IO-CP-121) obtained by pressurized extraction showed the highest polyphenolic and flavonoid contents (35.10 mg TAE/g and 18.48 mg QE/g, respectively) as well as DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities (26.08 and 27.99 mg AEAC/100 mg, respectively). Meanwhile, IO-CP-D (decoction) and IO-CP-50 (reflux) had more potent mitogenic effects (2.10- and 1.95-fold of saline control at 100 ${\mu}g/mL$) as well as intestinal immune system modulating activities (6.30- and 5.74-fold) compared to IO-CP-121, whereas ethanolic extracts showed no activity. Although no IO-CP showed cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cells at 0.1 mg/mL, IO-CP-121 significantly inhibited TNF-${\alpha}$ and NO production as pro-inflammatory factors in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (29.2 and 63.5%, respectively). Ethanolic extracts also showed no cytotoxicity at 0.1 mg/mL, whereas inhibition of TNF-${\alpha}$ and NO production was significantly low compared to that of IO-CP-121. In addition, active IO-CP-D was further fractionated into an unadsorbed (IO-CP-I) and seven adsorbed fractions (IO-CP-II~VIII) by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography in order to isolate immunostimulating polysaccharide. IO-CP-II showed the most potent mitogenic effect and macrophage stimulating activity (4.51- and 1.64-fold, respectively). IO-CP-II mainly contained neutral sugars (61.86%) in addition to a small amount of uronic acid (2.96%), and component sugar analysis showed that IO-CP-II consisted mainly of Glc, Gal, and Man (molar ratio of 1.00:0.55:0.31). Therefore, extraction conditions affect the physiological activity of chaga, and immunostimulating polysaccharide fractionated from chaga by decoction is composed mainly of neutral sugars.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 중소기업청

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