Fabrication of Functionally Graded Materials Between P21 Tool Steel and Cu by Using Laser-Aided Layered Manufacturing

레이저 적층조형을 이용한 P21 툴 스틸과 Cu 간 기능성 경사 복합재의 제작

  • Jeong, Jong-Seol (Graduate School of NID Fusion Technology, Seoul Nat'l Univ. of Science and Technology) ;
  • Shin, Ki-Hoon (Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Seoul Nat'l Univ. of Science and Technology)
  • 정종설 (서울과학기술대학교 NID 융합기술전문대학원) ;
  • 신기훈 (서울과학기술대학교 기계자동차공학과)
  • Received : 2012.06.18
  • Accepted : 2012.08.20
  • Published : 2013.01.01


With the development of layered manufacturing, thermally conductive molds or molds embedding conformal cooling channels can be directly fabricated. Although P21 tool steel is widely used as a mold material because of its dimensional stability, it is not efficient for cooling molds owing to its low thermal conductivity. Hence, the use of functionally graded materials (FGMs) between P21 and Cu may circumvent a tradeoff between the strength and the heat transfer rate. As a preliminary study for the layered manufacturing of thermally conductive molds having FGM structures, one-dimensional P21-Cu FGMs were fabricated by using laser-aided direct metal tooling (DMT), and then, material properties such as the thermal conductivity and specific heat that are related to the heat transfer were measured and analyzed.


Layered Manufacturing;Functionally Graded Materials;P21 Tool Steel


Supported by : 한국연구재단


  1. Shin, K. H., Natu, H., Dutta, D. and Mazumder, J. , 2003, "A Method for the Design and Fabrication of Heterogeneous Objects," Materials & Design, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp. 339-353.
  2. Fessler, J., Nickel, A., Link, G., Prinz, F. and Fussell, P., 1997, "Functional Gradient Metallic Prototypes through Shape Deposition Manufacturing," Solid Freeform Fabrication Proceedings, Austin, TX, pp. 521-528.
  3. Cho, W., Sachs, E. M., Patrikalakis, N. M. and Troxel, D. E., 2003, "A Dithering Algorithm for Local Composition Control with Three-Dimensional Printing," Computer Aided Design, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 851-86.
  5. Tang, C. and Chassapis, C. and Manoochehri, 1997, "Optimal Cooling System Design for Multi-Cavity Injection Moulding," Finite Element in Analysis and Design, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 229-251.
  6. Li. C. L., 2001, "A Feature-Based Approach to Injection Mould Cooling System Design," Computer- Aided Design, Vol. 33, pp. 1073-1090.
  7. Beal, V. E., Erasenthiran, P., Hopkinson, N., Dickens, P. and Ahrens, C. H., 2006, "The Effect of Scanning Strategy on Laser Fusion of Functionally Graded H13/Cu Materials," International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 30, pp. 844-852.
  8. Beal, V. E., Erasenthiran, P., Hopkinson, N., Dickens, P. and Ahrens, C. H., 2006, "Optimisation of Processing Parameters in Laser Fused H13/Cu Materials Using Response Surface Method(RSM)," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 174, pp. 145-154.
  9. Bhashyam, S., Shin, K. H. and Dutta, D., 2000, "An Integrated CAD System for Design of Heterogeneous Objects," Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 6, pp. 119-135.
  10. Shin, K. H., 2011, "Modeling of Time-variant Heterogeneous Objects in Micro-system Packages," Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 1119-1128.
  11. Shin, K. H., 2011, "Modeling of Cooling Channels of Injection Mould Using Functionally Graded Material," Trans. Korean Soc. Mech. Eng. A, 1647-1653.
  12. Shin, K. H., 2011, "A Method for Planar Development of Free-Form Surfaces Made of Anisotropic Materials," Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 11, pp. 2817-2825.
  13. Ahn, D. G., Kim H. W. and Lee K. Y., 2009, "Design of the Thermally Conductive Mould to Improve Cooling Characteristics of Injection Mould for a Mouse," Trans. Korean Soc. Mech. Eng. A, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 201-209.
  14. Ahn, D. G. and Kim, H. W., 2010, "Study on the Manufacture of a Thermal Management Mould with Three Different Materials Using a Direct Metal Tooling Rapid Tooling Process," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Vol. 224, No. B3, pp. 385-402.

Cited by

  1. Estimation of the Thickness and the Material Combination of the Thermal Stress Control Layer (TSCL) for the Stellite21 Hardfaced STD61 Hot Working Tool Steel Using Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis vol.38, pp.8, 2014,
  2. Property Estimation of Functionally Graded Materials Between M2 Tool Steel and Cu Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy vol.38, pp.9, 2014,
  3. Design of thermal stress control layers in the selective deposition technology of hot axle forging dies vol.18, pp.12, 2017,