Factors affecting Smoking Middle School Students' Intention to Quit Smoking: On the Basis of the ASE Model

흡연 중학생의 금연의도에 영향 미치는 요인: ASE 모델 적용을 중심으로

  • Received : 2013.10.14
  • Accepted : 2013.12.20
  • Published : 2013.12.31


Purpose: This study was conducted to identify factors for smoking middle school students' intention to quit smoking on the basis of the social influence and self-efficacy [ASE] model. Methods: Data were collected from 2,015 students from five middle schools in Daegu with a structured questionnaire in March, 2013 and analyzed by using $x^2$-test, ANOVA, pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results: The smoking rate was 6.1% among the total subjects and 85.4% of the smokers had intention to quit smoking. The mean value of attitude toward quitting smoking was $2.15{\pm}0.34$, that of social influence $3.38{\pm}0.65$, and that of self-efficacy $2.84{\pm}0.95$. The multiple regression analysis showed an explanatory power of 24.7%, and experience of trying to quit smoking was the strongest factor affecting the intention to quit smoking (${\beta}$=.34, p<.01), followed by school years and social influence. Conclusion: In order to increase smoking middle school students' intention to quit smoking, intervention strategies are needed to increase positive social influence or to offer public information to younger smoking students in low school years.


  1. Armstrong, B. K., White, E., & Saracci, R. (1992). Principles of exposure measurement in epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  2. Choi, E. Y., & Jeong, S. H. (2012). The effect of self-efficacy promotion smoking cessation program on the amount of smoking, CO, urine cotinine level and self-efficacy for adolescent smokers. Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science, 14 (2), 103-111.
  3. Choo, J., & Kim, E. K. (2011). Application of the ASE Model to the assertive behavior of non-smoking college students under secondhand smoke exposure. Journal of Korean academy of Community Health Nursing, 22 (1), 1-10.
  4. Chung, Y. S., & So, H. (2003). Knowledge, attitude and experience on smoking among primary school students. Journal of Korean Society for Health Education and Promotion, 20 (3), 189-205.
  5. Coleman, P. (1993). Overview of substance abuse. Primary Care, 20 (1), 1-18.
  6. DiClemente, C. C., Prochaska, J. O., & Gibertini, M. (1985). Selfefficacy and staged of self-change of smoking. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9 (2), 181-200.
  7. Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University. (2002). Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) Korean Version (Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Trans.). Seoul: Yonsei University Press.
  8. Holm, K., Kremers, S. P., & de Vries, H. (2003). Why do Danish adolescents take up smoking. European Journal of Public Health, 13 (1), 67-74.
  9. Hwang, B. D. (2007). Knowledge, attitude and factors for smoking behavior in high school students. Journal of Korean Society for Health Education and Promotion, 24 (2), 45-61.
  10. Hyeon, J. H. (2009). Adolescents' smoking cessation intention & the factors affecting smoking cessation intention. Unpublished master's thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul.
  11. Jang, J. Y. (2005). Analysis of related factors on middle school student smoking in Korea. Unpublished master's thesis, Yonsei University, Seoul.
  12. Kim, H. O. (2003). A study on the smoking related social influence, refusal skill and nonsmoking related self-efficacy among adolescents. Journal of Korean Academy of Child Health Nursing, 9 (3), 237-249.
  13. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, November2). Depressed adolescents are worse health behavior (smoking, drinking et al.) than normal adolescents. Retrieved Feburary 12, 2013, from tice/CdcKrIntro0201.jsp?menuIds=HOME001-MNU0005-MNU0011&fid=21&q_type=&q_value=&cid=19312&pageNum=1
  14. Korean Association of Smoking and Health. (2011, December 12). A study on survey of smoking the first half year 2011 (Prss release of Ministry for Health, Welfare and Family Affairs). Retrieved Feburary 11, 2013, from pds_view.asp
  15. Kowalski, S. D. (1997). Self-esteem and self-efficacy as predictors of success in smoking cessation. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 15 (2), 128-142.
  16. Kwak, Y. H. (2011). The study of factors of parents and peers influencing on the adolescent smoking. Unpublished master's thesis, Silla University, Busan.
  17. Lee, H. I. (2013). Relationship between the smoking behavior and risk-taking tendency and peer pressure in adolescents. Unpublished master's thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul.
  18. Lopez, M. L., Herrero, P., Comas, A., Leijs, I., Cueto, A., Charlton, A., et al. (2004). Impact of cigarette advertising on smoking behaviour in Spanish adolescents as measured using recognition of billboard advertising. European Journal of Public Health, 14 (4), 428-432.
  19. Maassen, I. T. H. M., Kremers, S. P. J., Mudde, A. N., & Joof, B. M. (2004). Smoking initiation among Gambian adolescents: Social cognitive influences and the effect of cigarette sampling. Health Education Research, 19 (5), 551-560.
  20. Moon, I. O., & Park, K. O. (2005). Youth's smoking status in Seoul in the international perspective: Overall comparisons with the results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). The Journal of Korean Society for School Health Education, 6 , 1-16.
  21. Oh, V. C. (2002). Related factors with the stage of change of smoking cessation in adolescent: Based on the trnastheoretical model. Unpublished master's thesis, Seoul National University, Seoul.
  22. Paek, K. S., & Choi, Y. H. (2004). High school students' knowledge and attitude about smoking according to their smoking status. Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing, 15 (2), 277-288.
  23. Park, J., Min, S., & Jang, J. Y. (2010). A study on the influence of smoking expectancy-value and normative beliefs on nonsmoking behavioral intention. Journal of Public Relations Research, 14 (3), 234-260.
  24. Park, Y. G., & Kang, Y. J. (1996). Behavior, Knowledge and Attitude on smoking of primary school children. Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine, 17 (9), 798-809.
  25. Park, Y. I. (2004). A study on the factors affecting smoking cessation behavior of university student smokers. Journal of Korean Academy Society of Nursing Education, 10 (2), 229-238.
  26. Pavanello, S., & Clonfero, E. (2000). Biomakers of genotoxic risk and metabolic polymorphisms. Medicina del Lavoro, 91 (5), 431-469.
  27. Ryu, S. Y., Shin, J. H., Kang, M. G., & Park, J. (2011). Factors associated with intention to quit smoking among male smokers in 13 communities in honam region of Korea: 2010 community health survey. Journal of Korean Society for Health Education and Promotion, 28 (2), 5-85.
  28. Whang, H. S. (2000). Predictive factors for intention of smoking cessation among youth smokers. Unpublished master's thesis, Kosin University, Busan.
  29. World Health Organization. (2001, May 31). World no tobacco day 2001: Second-hand smoke kills. let's clear the air. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from communications/events/wntd/2001/en