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Toxicity of Plant Essential Oils and Their Spray Formulations against the Citrus Flatid Planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Hemiptera: Flatidae)

  • Kim, Jun-Ran (Crop Protection Division, Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science) ;
  • Ji, Chang Woo (Crop Protection Division, Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science) ;
  • Seo, Bo Yoon (Crop Protection Division, Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science) ;
  • Park, Chang Gyu (Crop Protection Division, Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science) ;
  • Lee, Kwan-Seok (Crop Protection Division, Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science) ;
  • Lee, Sang-Guei (Crop Protection Division, Department of Crop Life Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science)
  • Received : 2013.10.07
  • Accepted : 2013.11.04
  • Published : 2013.12.31

Abstract

The insecticidal activity of 124 plant essential oils and control efficacy of six experimental spray formulations (SF) containing 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10% of the selected oils was examined against both nymph and adult of the citrus flatid planthopper, Metcalfa pruinosa using direct contact applications (leaf dipping and spray). Reponses varied according to dose (1,000 and 500 mg/L). When exposed at 1,000 mg/L for 24 h using leaf dipping assay, 19 essential oils showed strong mortality (100%) among 124 essential oils screened. At 500 mg/L, 100% mortality was observed in cinnamon technical, cinnamon green leaf, cinnamon #500, cassia tree, citronella java and pennyroyal followed by origanum, thyme white, grapefruit, savory, fennel sweet, aniseed and cinnamon bark showed considerable mortality (93.3-80%) against nymphs of M. pruinosa. The moderate mortality (73.3-60%) was found in thyme red, tagetes, calamus, lemoneucalptus and geranium. Oils applied as SF-10% sprays provided 100 % mortality against adult M. pruinosa. One hundred mortalities were achieved in cinnamon technical at >SF-0.5 formulation, in cinnamon #500, cinnamon green leaf and penny royal at >SF-2.5. To reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment, the active essential oils as potential larvicides could be provided as an alternative to control M. pruinosa populations.

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