DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

From Excluded Ghettos to Exclusionary Enclaves: A Private Sector Initiative in Guangzhou, China

Chen, Huiwei;Chan, Roger C.K.;He, Qicong

  • 투고 : 2013.01.14
  • 심사 : 2013.07.29
  • 발행 : 2013.07.30

초록

Massive migration is underway in rapidly urbanizing Guangzhou, the south gate of P. R. China. Over half the migrants choose to rent in "villages-in-the-city" in the downtown area because of the low-cost and prime location. The overpopulation and resulting poor environment and high crime-rate turn villages-in-the-city into de facto ghettos. As a result, these ghettos are undergoing a manner of demolition-development, leaving migrants' housing needs unmet. A private-sector initiative-the Tulou Commune-intends to address this considerable market potential. Targeting low-income groups, the Tulou Commune creates a socio-spatially exclusionary enclave. This paper analyzes the Tulou Commune and the implications if more low-income migrants shifting from village-in-the-city (excluded ghetto) to Tulou Commune (exclusionary enclave). This study argues that the intervention of the private sector causes the demographic, social, and spatial similarities and differences of the two living arrangements. Socioeconomic and institutional factors also affect the initiative. This study also provides more empirical evidence in the field of low-cost housing and socio-spatial development in transitional Chinese cities. As the first project of its kind, the analysis of the case can suggest how to improve strategies for accommodating migrants in the future.

키워드

Migration;Villages-in-the-city;Guangzhou;Private Sector Initiative;Commune

참고문헌

  1. Department of Construction of Guangdong Province (2008), Yue Jian Fang Han [2008] No. 173 Document.
  2. Brenner, N., P. Marcuse and M. Mayer (2009), "Cities for people, not for profit", City, 13(2): 176-184. https://doi.org/10.1080/13604810903020548
  3. Burdett, R. and D. Sudjic (Eds.) (2007), The Endless City, London: Phaidon.
  4. Chan, R. C. K., Y. M. Yao and S. X. B. Zhao (2003), "Self-help housing strategy for temporary population in Guangzhou, China", Habitat International, 27: 19-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-3975(02)00033-4
  5. Coy, M. (2006), "Gated communities and urban fragmentation in Latin America: the Brazilian experience", GeoJournal, 66(1-2): 121-132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-006-9011-6
  6. Douglass, M., B. Wissink and R. Van Kempen (2012), "Enclave Urbanism in China: Consequences and interpretations", Urban geography, 33(2): 167-182. https://doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.33.2.167
  7. Grand, J., C. Propper and S. Smith (Eds.) (2008), The Economics of Social Problems, New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
  8. Huang, Y. (2003), "Renters' housing behavior in transitional urban China", Housing Studies, 18(1): 103-126. https://doi.org/10.1080/0267303032000076867
  9. Guangzhou Daily (2009), "The migrant population is over 6 million in Guangzhou [Sui Liudong Renkou Tupo 600 Wan]", 25 July 2009.
  10. Guo, F. and Z. Zhang (2006), "Transforming urban villages: social stratification in migrant communities in China", paper presented at the ACESA Annual Conference 2006 - Emerging China: Internal Challenges and Global Implications, 13-14 July 2006, Melbourne, Australia.
  11. Hamnett, C. (2001), "Social segregation and social polarization", in R. Paddison (Ed.) Handbook of Urban Studies: 162-176, London: Sage Publications.
  12. Jeffery, C. (1971), Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publication.
  13. Jenkins, P., H. Smith and Y. Wang (2007), Planning and Housing in the Rapidly Urbanising World, London; New York: Routledge.
  14. Kearney, K. (1986), "From the invisible hand to visible feet: anthropological studies of migration and development", Annual Review of Anthropology, 15: 331-361. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.15.100186.001555
  15. Knox, P. and S. Pinch (2000), Urban Social Geography: An Introduction, London: Prentice Hall.
  16. Light, D. W. (2004), "From migrant enclave to mainstream: reconceptualizing informal economic behavior", Theory and Society, 33(6): 705-737. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:RYSO.0000049193.32984.c2
  17. Liu, C. (2009), "Due to high intensity design of "implant" -discussion on the reconstruction of urban villages in the new era", paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Urban Planning in China, 2008. Retrieved from http://www.upr.cn/intro/thesis_10973.aspx. [Accessed on 24 Aug 2009].
  18. Logan, J. R. (ED.) (2002), The New Chinese City: Globalization and Market Reform, Oxford: Blackwell.
  19. Liu, X. and M. Yan (2007), "From urban village to Tulou commune: two urban proposals for low-income housing in Shenzhen", Asia Cultural Co-operation Forum 2007, Open Forum Session Two.
  20. Li, B., M. Duda and X. An (2009), "Drivers of housing choice among rural-to-urban migrants: evidence from Taiyuan", Journal of Asian Public Policy, 2(2): 142-156. https://doi.org/10.1080/17516230903027898
  21. Li, Z. and F. Wu (2006), "Socio-spatial differentiation and residential inequalities in Shanghai: a case study of three neighbourhoods", Housing Studies, 21(5): 695-717. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673030600807365
  22. Marcuse, P. and R. Van Kempen (Eds.) (2000), Globalizing Cities: A New Spatial Order?, Oxford: Blackwell.
  23. Marcuse, P. and R. Van Kempen (Eds.) (2002), Of States and Cities: The Partitioning of Urban Space, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  24. Marcuse, P. (1997), "The ghetto of exclusion and the fortified enclave - new patterns in the United States", American Behavioral Scientist, 41(3): 311-326. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764297041003004
  25. Newman, P. and A. Thornley (2004), Planning World Cities: Globalization and Urban Politics, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  26. Peach, C. (2005), "The ghetto and the ethnic enclave(Chapter 2)" in, Varady, D.P. (ed.) Desegregating the City: Ghettos, enclaves and inequalities. Albany, State University of New York Press.
  27. Regional Institute of Higher Education and Development (RIHED) (1982), Housing as a Basic Need, Singapore: Maruzen Asia.
  28. Tang, W. and H. Chung (2002), "Rural-urban transition in China: illegal land use and construction", Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 43(1): 43-62. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8373.00157
  29. Schmidt, W. C. (1997), "World-wide Web survey research: benefits, potential problems, and solutions", Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 29(2): 274-279. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03204826
  30. Stanton, J. M. (1998), "An empirical assessment of data collection using the Internet", Personnel Psychology, 51: 709-725. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1998.tb00259.x
  31. State Statistical Bureau (2001) Guangzhou tongji nianjian 2001 [Guangzhou Statistical Yearbook, 2001], Beijing: Zhongguo Tongji Chubanshe [China Statistical Press].
  32. Tang, W. (1997), "Urbanisation in China: a review of its causal mechanisms and spatial relations", Progress in Planning, 48: 1-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-9006(97)00008-1
  33. URBANUS (2008), "Tulou Gongshe: Guanyu Zhongguo Chengshi Dishouru Zhuzhai Moshi De Tansuo" [Tulou Commune: exploration on low-cost housing in Chinese cities], Jianzhu Yu Wenhua [Architecture and Culture], 27 Feb 2008. Retrieved from http://www.chinaacsc.com/case/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=1521 [Accessed on 24 Aug 2009].
  34. Wang, Y. and A. Murie (2000), "Social and spatial implications of housing reform in China", International of Urban and Regional Research, 24: 397-417. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00254
  35. Varady, D. P. (2005), Desegregating the city: ghettos, enclaves, and inequality, Albany, N.Y., State University of New York Press.
  36. Walks, R. A. (2001), "The social ecology of the post-Fordist/global city? economic restructuring and socio-spatial polarization in the Toronto urban region", Urban Studies, 38: 407-447. https://doi.org/10.1080/00420980120027438
  37. Wang, S. (2007), Press minutes of "Horn Action II: China-UK Comparative Study on 38 Housing Provision to Low-income Urban Residents", Retrieved from http://bj.house.sina.com.cn/news/2007-12-13/1709229259.html [Accessed on 15 Apr 2009].
  38. Wang, S. (2007), "Xu Yi: Xiaohe Cailou Jianjian Jiao" [Preface one: it is just a start] in VANKE and CESBCG (Culture and Education Section of British Consulate General), Shuangcheng Biji [The Notes of Two Cities], Shantou: Shantou Press.
  39. Wang, Y. and A. Murie (1999), Housing policy and practice in China, London: Macmillan.
  40. Wei, L. and X. Yan (2005), "Chengzhongcun": Xucun Qiantixia De Zhuanxing - Jianlun "Chengzhongcun" Gaizao De Kexingxing [Transformation of "urban village" and feasible mode], Chengshi Guihua [Urban Planning] 29(7): 9-14.
  41. Wessel, T. (2000), "Social polarization and socio-economic segregation in a welfare state: the case of Oslo", Urban Studies, 37: 1947-1967. https://doi.org/10.1080/713707228
  42. Wu, W. (2004), "Sources of migrant housing disadvantages in urban China", Environment and Planning A, 36: 1285-1304. https://doi.org/10.1068/a36193
  43. Zhang, L., X. B. Zhao and J. P. Tian (2003), "Self-help in housing and chengzhongcun in China's urbanization", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(4): 912-937. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0309-1317.2003.00491.x
  44. Xue, D., X. Cao and S. Zhang (2006), "Housing supply for migrants in Chinese cities", IHDP Regional Workshop, Beijing China, Nov. 5-7 2006. Retrieved from http://www.ihdp-cnc.cn/En/meeting/Regional_workshop/ppt/Case%20Studies/Hosing%20Supply%20for%20Migrants_Xue%20et%20al.pdf [Accessed on 6 Mar 2009].
  45. Yeh, G.-O. and F. Wu (1998), "The transformation of the urban planning system in China from a centrally-planned to transitional economy", Progress in Planning, 51: 165-252.
  46. Zhou, D. (1997), "On rural urbanization in China", In G. Guldin (Ed.), Farewell to Peasant China: rural urbanization and social change in the late twentieth century, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc.