Effects of Foot Type and Ankle Joint Fatigue Levels on the Trajectories of COP and COM during a Single-Leg Stance

발의 유형과 발목 관절 피로 수준이 외발서기 시 압력중심점과 질량중심점 궤적에 미치는 영향

  • Shin, Young-Hwa (Department of Physical Education, Graduate School, Dong-A University) ;
  • Youm, Chang-Hong (Department of Coaching, College of Sport Sciences, Dong-A University) ;
  • Son, Min-Ji (Department of Taekwondo, Graduate School, Dong-A University)
  • 신영화 (동아대학교 대학원 체육학과) ;
  • 염창홍 (동아대학교 스포츠과학대학 스포츠지도학과) ;
  • 손민지 (동아대학교 대학원 태권도학과)
  • Received : 2013.10.28
  • Accepted : 2013.12.18
  • Published : 2013.12.31


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of foot type and ankle joint fatigue levels on the trajectories of center of pressure and center of mass during a single-leg stance. The study subjects included 24 healthy women (normal foot group, n=10; pronated foot group, n=14). Ankle joint muscle fatigue was induced by using an isokinetic dynamometer, where the fatigue levels were measured on plantar flexion and dorsiflexion at angular velocities of $30^{\circ}/s$ at 50% and 30% of the peak torque of ankle plantar flexion. Following assessments in the anteroposterior direction according to the level of fatigue, the pronated foot group showed decreased single-leg stance ability at 50% and 30% of the fatigue level. Moreover, the normal foot group showed better single-leg stance ability than the pronated foot group at 30% of the fatigue level. Following assessments in the mediolateral direction, we noted that the single-leg stance ability did not differ significantly according to the levels of fatigue or foot type. In conclusion, ankle plantar flexion at 50% and 30% of the peak torque reduced the ability of the pronated foot group to achieve a single leg stance in the anteroposterior direction. Moreover, the normal foot group showed better single-leg stance ability than the pronated foot group.


Supported by : 동아대학교


  1. Adlerton, A. K., Moritz, U., & Moe-Nilssen, R.(2003). Force plate and accelerometer measures for evaluating the effect of muscle fatigue on postural control during one-legged stance. Physiotherapy Research International, 8, 187-199.
  2. Bandholm, T., Boysen, L., Haugaard, S., Zebis, M. K., & Bencke, J.(2008). Foot medial longitudinal-arch deformation during quiet standing and gait in subjects with medial tibial stress syndrome. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery, 47(2), 89-95.
  3. Barrault, D., Brondani, J. C., & Rousseau, D.(1991). Medecine du judoMasson, Paris, Mason.
  4. Bilodeau, M., Henderson, T., Nolta, B., Pursley, P. J., & Sandfort, G.(2001). Effect of aging on fatigue characteristics of elbow flexor muscles during sustained submaximal contraction. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 2654-2564.
  5. Bisson, E. J., Chopra, S., Azzi, E., Morgan, A., & Bilodeau, M.(2010). Acute effects of fatigue of the plantarflexor muscles on different postural tasks. Gait & Posture, 32(4), 482-486.
  6. Bisson, E. J., McEwen, D., Lajoie, Y., & Bilodeau, M.(2011). Effects of ankle and hip muscle fatigue on postural sway and attentional demands during unipedal stance. Gait & posture, 33(1), 83-87.
  7. Bizid, R., Margnes, E., Francois, Y., Jully, J. L., Gonzalez, G., Dupui, P., & Paillard, T.(2009). Effects of knee and ankle muscle fatigue on postural control in the unipedal stance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(3), 375-380.
  8. Boyas, S., Remaud, A., Bisson, E. J., Cadieux, S., Morel, B., & Bilodeau, M.(2011). Impairment in postural control is greater when ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors are fatigued simultaneously than when fatigued separately. Gait & Posture, 34(2), 254-259.
  9. Chabran, E., Maton, B., & Fourment, A.(2002). Effects of postural muscle fatigue on the relation between segmental posture and movement. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 12, 67-79.
  10. Cobb, S. C., Tis, L. L., Johnson, B. F., & Higbie E. J.(2004). The effect of forefoot varus on postural stability. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 34, 79-85.
  11. Cote, K. P., Brunet, M. E., Gansneder, B. M., & Shultz, S. J.(2005). Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability. Journal of Athletic Training, 40(1), 41-46.
  12. Dahle, L. K., Mueller, M., Delitto, A., & Diamond, J.(1991). Visual Assessment of Foot Type and Relationship of Foot Type to Lower Extremity Injury. Journal of Sports and Physical Therapy, 14(2), 70-74.
  13. David, T. O., Carl, G. M., & Brent, L. A.(2000). Effect of orthotics on postural sway after fatigue of the plantar flexors and dorsiflexors. Journal of Athletic Training, 35(1), 26-30.
  14. Fagenbaum, R. & Darling, W. G.(2003). Jump landing strategies in male and female college athletes and the implications of such strategies for anterior cruciate ligament injury. American Journal of Sport Medicine, 31, 233-240.
  15. Franco, A. H.(1987). Pes cavus and pes planus. Analyses and treatment. Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association, 67, 688-694.
  16. Forestier, N., Teasdale, N., & Nougier, V.(2002). Alteration of the position sense at the ankle induced by muscular fatigue in humans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34:117-122.
  17. Giannesini, B., Cozzone, P. J., & Bendahan, D.(2003). Non-invasive investigations of muscular fatigue: metabolic and electromyographic components. Biochimie, 85(9), 873-883.
  18. Gribble, P. A. & Hertel, J.(2004a). Effect of hip and ankle muscle fatigue on unipedal postural control. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 14, 641-646.
  19. Gribble, P. A. & Hertel, J.(2004b). Effect of lower-extremity muscle fatigue on postural control. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 589-592.
  20. Gutierrez, G. M., Jackson, N. D., Dorr, K. A., Margiotta, S. E., & Kaminski, T. W.(2007). Effect of fatigue on neuromuscular function at the ankle. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 16(4), 295-306.
  21. Ha, C. S. & Kim, B. K.(2000). Comparison Analysis of Foot Shape, Among University Students Majoring in Korean Traditional Dance, Modern Dance and Ballet. Korean Society of Growth and Development, 8(2), 97-105.
  22. Harkins, K. M., Mattacola, C. G., Uhl, T. L., Malone, T. R., & McCrory, J. L.(2005). Effects of 2 ankle fatigue models on the duration of postural stability dysfunction. Journal of Athletic Training, 40, 191-194.
  23. Headlee, D. L., Leonard, J. L., Hart, J. M., Ingersoll, C. D., & Hertel, J.(2008). Fatigue of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles increases navicular drop. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 18(3), 420-425
  24. Hertel, J., Gay, M. R., & Denegar, C. R.(2002). Differences in postural control during single-leg stance among healthy individuals with different foot types. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(2), 129-132.
  25. Hiemstra, L. A., Lo, I. K., & Folwer, P. J.(2001). Effect of fatigue on knee proprioception: implications for dynamic stabilization. Journal of Orthopaedical Sports Physical Therapy, 31, 598-605.
  26. Hosseinimehr, S. H., Daneshmandi, A., & Norasteh, A. A.(2010). The effects of activity related fatigue on static and dynamic postural control in college atheletes. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, 4(2), 148-155.
  27. Hyong, I. H., Kim, H. S., & Lee, G. C.(2009). The Effect of Muscle Activities and Dynamic Balance Ability with Mobilization and Active Exercise on Pronation Foot. Journal of sport and leisure studies, 37(2), 1023-1032.
  28. Kazutomo, M., Yasuyuki, I., Eiichi, T., Yoshihisa, O., Hironori, O., & Satoshi, T.(2004). The effect of local and general fatigue on knee proprioception. The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, 20(4), 414-418.
  29. Kasahara, S., Ebata, J., & Takahashi, M.(2007). Analysis of the repeated one-leg heel-rise test of ankle plantar flexors in manual muscle testing. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 19(4), 251-256.
  30. Kim, C. J., Park, S. B., Shin, Y. O., & Oh, J. K.(2002). Analysis on the radiological foot deformity and isokinetic evaluation of ankle in finswimmer. The Korean Journal of Sports Medicine, 20(1), 90-95.
  31. Lafond, D., Duarte, M., & Prince, F.(2004). Comparison of three methods to estimate the center of mass during balance assessment. Journal of Biomechanics, 37, 1421-1426.
  32. Lee, A. D.(2005). A Comparison on the feet shape among different types of dance majors and other majors. Official Journal of Korean Society of Dance Science, 10, 119-127.
  33. Lee, K. K. & Kwon, S. O.(2005). Research of taekwondo players' anthropometric measurements and the implications on foot shape. Journal of sport and leisure studies, 24, 305-312.
  34. Letafatkar, K., Alizadeh, M. H., & Kordi, M. R.(2009). The effect of exhausting exercise induced fatigue on the double-leg balance of elite male athletes. Journal of Social Sciences, 5(4), 445-451.
  35. Lundin, T. M., Feuerbach, J. W., & Grabiner, M. D.(1993). Effect of plantar flexor and dorsiflexor fatigue on unilateral postural control. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 9, 191-201.
  36. Maclaren, D. P., Gibson, H., Parry-Billings, M., & Edwards, R. H.(1989). A review of metabolic and physiological factors in fatigue. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 17(1), 29-66.
  37. Manou, V., Arseniou, P., Gerodimos, V., & Kellis, S.(2002). Testretest reliability of an isokinetic muscle endurance test. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 10(4), 177-181.
  38. Mueller, M. J., Host, J. V., & Norton, B. J.(1993). Navicular drop as a composite measure of excessive pronation. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 83, 198-202.
  39. Murphy, D. F., Connolly, D. A. J., & Beynnon, B. D.(2003). Risk factors for lower extremity injury: a review of the literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 13-29.
  40. Ochsendorf, D. T., Mattacola, C. G., & Arnold, B. L.(2000). Effect of orthotics on postural sway after fatigue of the plantar flexors and dorsiflexors. Journal of Athletic Training, 35(1), 26-30.
  41. Paillard, T.(2012). Effects of general and local fatigue on postural control: A review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(1), 162-176
  42. Price, R. J., Hawkins, R. D., Hulse, M. A., & Hodson, A.(2004). The Football Association medical research programme: an audit of injuries in academy youth football. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38, 466-471.
  43. Ruhe, A., Fejer, R., & Walker, B.(2010). The test-retest reliability of centre of pressure measures in bipedal static task conditionsa systematic review of the literature. Gait & Posture, 32(4), 436-445.
  44. Salavati, M., Moghadam, M., Ebrahimi, I., & Arab, A. M.(2007). Changes in postural stability with fatigue of lower extremity frontal and sagittal plane movers. Gait & Posture, 26, 214-218.
  45. Sell, K. E., Verity, T. M., Worrell, T. W., Pease, B. J., & Wigglesworth, J.(1994). Two measurement techniques for assessing subtalar joint position: a reliability study. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 19, 162-167.
  46. Springer, B. K. & Pincivero, D. M.(2009). The effects of localized muscle and whole-body fatigue on single-leg balance between healthy men and women. Gait & Posture, 30, 50-54.
  47. Tsai, L. C., Yu, B., Mercer, V. S., & Gross, M. T.(2006). Comparison of different structural foot types for measures of standing postural control. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 36(12), 942-953.
  48. Vaughan, C. L., Davis, B. L., & O'Connor, J. C.(1992). Appendix C: Commercial equipment for gait analysis. In: Dynamics of human gait. Human Kinectics Publishers.
  49. Vuillerme, N. Sportbert, C., & Pinsault, N.(2009). Postural adaptation to unilateral hip muscle fatigue during human bipedal standing. Gait & Posture, 30, 122-125.
  50. Williams, D. S., McClay, I. S., & Hamill, J.(2001). Arch structure and injury patterns in runners. Clinical Biomechanics, 16(4), 341-347.
  51. Williams, D. S. & McClay, I. S.(2000) Measurements used to characterize the foot and the medial longitudinal arch: reliability and validity. Physical Therapy, 80, 864-871.
  52. Wilson, M. L., Rome, K., Hodgson, D., & Ball, P.(2008). Effect of textured foot orthotics on static and dynamic postural stability in middle-aged females. Gait & Posture, 27, 36-42.
  53. Yaggie, J. A. & McGregor, S. J.(2002). Effects of isokinetic ankle fatigue on the maintenance of balance and postural limits. Archives of physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83(2), 224-228.