Seasonal Deposition Characteristics of Water-soluble Ion Species in Ambient Aerosol in Iksan City

익산지역 대기에어로졸 중 수용성 이온성분의 계절별 침적 특성

  • Received : 2013.01.17
  • Accepted : 2013.02.18
  • Published : 2013.02.28


Objectives: This paper aims to investigate the seasonal deposition characteristics of water-soluble ion species by comparing the deposition amount of two samples taken according to different sampling methods of deposition for ambient aerosol such as gases and particulate matters. Methods: Deposition samples were collected using two deposition gauges in the downtown area of Iksan City over approximately two weeks of each season in 2004. The type of deposition gauges consisted of two different sampling methods known as dry gauge and a wet gauge. The dry gauge was empty and used a dry PE bottle with an inlet diameter of 9.6 cm. Before the beginning of each deposition sampling, a volume of 30-50 ml distilled ionized water was added to the wet gauge to wet the bottom during the sampling period. Deposition samples were measured twice per day and analyzed for inorganic water-soluble ion species using ion chromatography. Results: The daily deposition amounts of all measured ions in the dry gauge and the wet gauge showed a significant increase when precipitation occurred, having no difference of deposition amount between in the wet gauge and in the dry gauge. By excluding two samples from rainy days during the sampling period, the mean daily deposition of all ions in dry gauge and wet gauge were $6.58mg/m^2/day$ and $18.16mg/m^2/day$, respectively. The mean deposition amounts of each ion species were higher in the wet gauge than in the dry gauge because of the surface difference of the sampling gauge, especially for $NH_4{^+}$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$. The mean deposition amounts of $NH_4{^+}$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$ in the wet gauge were found to be about 15.4 times and 5.2 times higher than that in dry gauge, with a pronounced difference between spring and summer, while the remaining ion species were 1.1-2.0 times higher in the wet gauge than in the dry gauge. Dominant species in the dry gauge were $Ca^{2+}$ and $NO_3{^-}$, accounting for 36.4% and 18.1% of the total ion deposition, whereas those in the wet gauge were $NH_4{^+}$ and ${SO_4}^{2-}$, accounting for 32.5% and 25.0% of the total ion deposition, respectively. Conclusion: The seasonal differences in deposition amounts of water-soluble ion species in ambient aerosol depending on the two types of different sampling methods were identified. This suggests that the removal of ambient aerosol is strongly influenced by the weather conditions of each season as well as the condition of earth's surface, such as dry ground and water.


deposition amount;water-soluble ions;wet gauge;dry gauge


  1. Ju JH, Hwang IJ. A statistical analysis and spatial distribution analysis for deposition characteristics of fall-out particles. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 2012; 28(3): 294-305.
  2. Kim HS, Lee TJ, Kim DS. Chemical compositions and spatial distribution analysis of fall-out particles in Suwon area. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 1999; 15(1): 23-32.
  3. Dolislagar LJ, VanCuren R, Pederson JR, Lashgari A, McCauley E. A summary of the Lake Tahoe atmospheric deposition study (LTADS). Atmos Environ. 2012; 46: 618-630.
  4. Han JS, Lee SD, Hong YD, Kong BJ, Shin SA. Jung, IR. A characteristics and distributions of wet deposition in Korea, 2005. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 2006; 22(4): 459-467.
  5. Kim SB, Choi BC, Oh SY, Kim S, Kang GU. Acidity and chemical composition of precipitation at background area of the Korean peninsula (Anmyeon, Uljin, Gosan). J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 2006; 22(1): 15-24.
  6. Chung JD, Lee CH. A study on the transition characteristics of precipitation components in Dangjin and Anmyon-do area. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 2004; 20(5): 593-601.
  7. Kang GU, Collett JL, Shin DY, Fujita SI, Kim HK. Comparison of the chemical composition of precipitation on the western and eastern coasts of Korea. Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 2004; 151: 11-34.
  8. Kang GU, Shin DY, Kim HK. Analysis of precipitation chemistry at rural site in the eastern coast, Korea. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 2003; 19(E1): 29-39.
  9. Lee BK, Hong SH, Lee DS. Chemical composition of precipitation and wet deposition of major ions on the Korean peninsula. Atmos Environ. 2000; 34: 563-575.
  10. Kim MG, Kang MH, Lim YS, Park KJ, Hwang H, Lee BK, Hong SH, Lee DS. A Study on the Behavior and Deposition of Acid Precipitation - Comparison of Chemical Composition of Rain Water between Chunchon and Seoul. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 1999; 15(2): 89-100.
  11. Kim MG, Lim YS, Park KJ, Hwang H. A study on the behavior and deposition of acid precipitation - chemical composition of fog water at Chunchon (1996-1997). J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 1998; 14(5): 491-498.
  12. Lee KJ, Chung YS. Acidity analysis of precipitation occurred at Woongchon, Choongnam. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 1996; 12(2): 179-187.
  13. Kang GU, Kim HK. Monitoring results of acidic deposition in Korea. International Workshop on Acidic Deposition in East Asia, 24-26 November 1993, Hakone, Japan; 1993. p.9-12.
  14. Song KH, Park YN, Chung YS, Park KT. A preliminary study on the acidity of precipitation in the rural area of Choongbook province. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 1992; 8(1): 38-44.
  15. Cheong JP, Jang YH. Atmospheric dry deposition characteristics of nitrogen-containing compounds into Juam reservoir. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 2005; 21(6): 657-666.
  16. Kim JY, Ghim YS, Won JG, Yoon SC, Woo JH, Cho KT. Estimation of nitrogen and sulfur dry deposition over the watershed of Lake Paldang. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 2005; 21(1): 49-62.
  17. Ghim YS, Kim JY. Dry deposition of reactive nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the greater Seoul area. Kor J Chem Eng. 2002; 19: 52-60.
  18. Park SU, Lee YH, Lee EH. Estimation of nitrogen dry deposition in South Korea. Atmos Environ. 2002; 36: 4951-4964.
  19. Kim MK. Chemical characterization of dustfall matters in Inchon. J Kor Soc Environ Admin. 2006; 12(2): 113-120.
  20. Park YY, Kim CY, Hu CG. A study on the temporal and spatial characteristics of atmospheric deposition in Cheju area. J Kor Soc Environ Admin. 1997; 4: 31-45.
  21. Shin DY, Cho SH, Moo OR, Lim CS, Kang GU. A study on the deposition amount of water-soluble ionic components in dustfall in Kwangju city. Kor J Environ Health. 1996; 22(2): 124-129.
  22. Kang BW, Kang GU, Kim MY. Deposition amount of soluble components of dustfall in Seoul. J Kor Air Pollut Res Assoc. 1992: 8(4): 240-246.
  23. Kang GU, Kim NS, Shin ES. Seasonal characteristics of atmospheric $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ in Iksan, Korea. J Environ Health Sci. 2011; 37(1): 29-43.
  24. Lee BK, Kim YH, Ha JY, Lee DS. Development of an automated and continuous analysis system for $PM_{2.5}$ and chemical characterization of the $PM_{2.5}$ in the atmosphere at Seoul. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 2005; 21(4): 439-458.
  25. Pöschl U. Atmospheric aerosols: composition, transformation, climate and health effects. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2005; 44, 7520-7540.
  26. Kang GU, Lee SB. Daily concentration measurements of water-soluble inorganic ions in the atmospheric fine particulate for respiratory deposition region. J Environ Health Sci. 2005; 31(5): 387-397.
  27. Kang GU, Kim NS, Rhim KH. Seasonal size distribution of atmospheric particles in Iksan, Korea. J Environ Health Sci. 2006; 32(6): 543-555.
  28. Korea Meteorological Administration. 기상청 황사 관측일수. Available: asiandust/observday.jsp. [Accessed 3 January 2013].
  29. Kang GU, Lee JH. Comparison of $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ in a suburban area in Korea during April, 2003. Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 2005: 71-87.
  30. Kocak M, Kubilay N, Mihalopoulos N. Ionic composition of lower tropospheric aerosols at a Northeastern Mediterranean site: implications regarding sources and long-range transport. Atmos Environ. 2004; 38: 2067-2077.
  31. Kang GU, Kim NS, Kim KS, Kim MK, Lee HJ. Concentration characteristics of atmospheric $PM_{2.5}$, $PM_{10}$, and TSP during the Asian dust storm in Iksan area. J Environ Health Sci. 2007; 33(5): 408-421.
  32. Won SR, Choi YC, Kim AR, Choi SH, Ghim YS. Ion concentrations of particulate matter in Yongin in Spring and Fall. J Kor Soc Atmos Environ. 2010; 26(3): 265-275.
  33. Krueger BJ, Grassian VH, Laskin A, Cowin JP. The transformation of solid atmospheric particles into liquid droplets through heterogeneous chemistry: Laboratory insights into the processing of calcium containing mineral dust aerosol in the troposphere. Geophys Res Lett. 2003; 30: 1148-1151.
  34. Sakata M, Tani Y, Takagi T. Wet and dry deposition fluxes of trace elements in Tokyo Bay. Atmos Environ. 2008; 42(23): 5913-5922.
  35. Inomata Y, Igarashi Y, Chiba M, Shinoda Y, Takahashi H. Dry and wet deposition of water-insoluble dust and water-soluble chemical species during 2007 in Tsukuba, Japan. Atmos Environ. 2009; 43(29): 4503-4512.
  36. Seinfeld JH, Pandis SN. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, 2nd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
  37. Nakamura T, Matsumoto K, Uematsu M. Chemical characteristics of aerosols transported from Asia to the East China Sea: an evaluation of anthropogenic combined nitrogen deposition in autumn. Atmos Environ. 2005; 39: 1749-1758.


Supported by : 원광보건대학교