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Effects of Synchronicity of Carbohydrate and Protein Degradation on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Protein Synthesis

  • Seo, J.K. (Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, M.H. (Laboratory of Immunology and Hematopoiesis, Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University) ;
  • Yang, J.Y. (Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, H.J. (Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University) ;
  • Lee, C.H. (Department of Dairy and Animal Science, Pennsylvania State University) ;
  • Kim, K.H. (National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Ha, Jong K. (Department of Agriculture Biotechnology, Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2012.09.17
  • Accepted : 2012.11.06
  • Published : 2013.03.01

Abstract

A series of in vitro studies were carried out to determine i) the effects of enzyme and formaldehyde treatment on the degradation characteristics of carbohydrate and protein sources and on the synchronicity of these processes, and ii) the effects of synchronizing carbohydrate and protein supply on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in in vitro experiments. Untreated corn (C) and enzyme-treated corn (EC) were combined with soy bean meal with (ES) and without (S) enzyme treatment or formaldehyde treatment (FS). Six experimental feeds (CS, CES, CFS, ECS, ECES and ECFS) with different synchrony indices were prepared. Highly synchronous diets had the greatest dry matter (DM) digestibility when untreated corn was used. However, the degree of synchronicity did not influence DM digestibility when EC was mixed with various soybean meals. At time points of 12 h and 24 h of incubation, EC-containing diets showed lower ammonia-N concentrations than those of C-containing diets, irrespective of the degree of synchronicity, indicating that more efficient utilization of ammonia-N for MPS was achieved by ruminal microorganisms when EC was offered as a carbohydrate source. Within C-containing treatments, the purine base concentration increased as the diets were more synchronized. This effect was not observed when EC was offered. There were significant effects on VFA concentration of both C and S treatments and their interactions. Similar to purine concentrations, total VFA production and individual VFA concentration in the groups containing EC as an energy source was higher than those of other groups (CS, CES and CFS). The results of the present study suggested that the availability of energy or the protein source are the most limiting factors for rumen fermentation and MPS, rather than the degree of synchronicity.

Keywords

Enzyme;Formaldehyde;Synchronicity;Rumen Fermentation;Microbial Protein Synthesis

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration

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