Microbiological Hazard Analysis for Strawberry Farms at the Harvest Stage to Establish Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Model Based on Principle of HACCP

HACCP 원리에 기초하는 GAP모델 확립을 위한 딸기 농장의 수확단계에 대한 미생물학적 위해요소 조사

  • Shim, Won-Bo (School of Physics and Chemistry, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology) ;
  • Kim, Kyeong-Yeol (Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 program), Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Yoon, Yo-Han (Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University) ;
  • Kim, Jang-Eok (School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Shim, Sang-In (Department of Agronomy, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, Yun-Shik (Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Chung, Duck-Hwa (Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 program), Graduate School, Gyeongsang National University)
  • 심원보 (광주과학기술원 물리화학부) ;
  • 김경열 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK 21 program)) ;
  • 윤요한 (숙명여자대학교 생활과학부 식품영양학과) ;
  • 김장억 (경북대학교 응용생명과학부) ;
  • 심상인 (경상대학교 농학과) ;
  • 김윤식 (경상대학교 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 정덕화 (경상대학교 응용생명과학부(BK 21 program))
  • Received : 2012.07.11
  • Accepted : 2012.10.21
  • Published : 2013.02.28


This study assessed hazards at the harvest stage of strawberry farms which may cause risk to humans. A total of 216 samples were collected from 6 strawberry farms (soil culture farms: A, B, C; nutriculture farms: D, E, F) located in Western Gyeongnam. The collected samples were subjected for sanitary indicator bacteria (aerobic plate count, coliforms and Escherichia coli), major foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), and fungi. The levels of APC and coliform in the soil culture farms were 1.0-6.9 and 0.4-4.6 log CFU/g (leaf, mL, hand or 100 $cm^2$), respectively. The samples obtained from the nutriculture farms were contaminated with the levels of 0.8-4.9, and 0.2-2.6 log CFU/g (leaf, mL, hand or 100 $cm^2$) of APC and coliform. However, E. coli was not detected in any samples. In major foodborne pathogens, S. aureus was detected at the level of ${\leq}$3.3 log CFU/hand in workers' hand samples and B. cereus was detected at the levels of 0.4-4.1 log CFU/g (hand or 100 $cm^2$) in soil, plants and workers' hygiene. L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. were not detected. Fungi were detected at the levels of 1.0-5.2 and 0.2-4.4 log CFU/g (leaf, mL, hand or 100 $cm^2$) in soil culture and nutriculture farms, respectively.


Supported by : 농촌진흥청


  1. Nam MJ, Chung DY, Shim WB, Chung DH. Hazard analysis for the application of good agricultural practices(GAP) on paprika during cultivation. J. Fd. Hyg. Safety 26: 273-282 (2011)
  2. KFDA. Statistics system on Foodborne Disease, Statistics of cause bacteria. Available at: nMenuCode=33. Accessed on Apr. 11, 2012.
  3. Seo KY, Lee MJ, Yeon JH, Kim IJ, Ha JH, Ha SD. Microbiological contamination levels of in salad and side dishes distributed in markets. J. Fd. Hyg. Safety 21: 263-268 (2006)
  4. FDA. Fruit Fresh Up, Inc. Recalls fresh cut cantaloupe and cut mixed fruit containing cantaloupe distributed in new york state because of possible health risk. Available from: http://www.fda. gov/Safety/Recalls/ ucm274835.htm. Accessed Oct. 07, 2011.
  5. Kim SR, Shim WB, Park SJ, Ha KS, Yoon HS, Ha SD, Kim KS, Lee KH, Kim MG, Kim KY, Lim CH, Chung DH. Investigation of the level of microbial contamination in the environment for juice production. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 37: 287-293 (2005)
  6. Yu YM, Youn YN, Quan juan Hua, Gha GH, Lee YH. Biological hazard analysis of paprikas, strawberries, and tomatoes in the markets. J. Fd Hyg. Safety 24: 174-181 (2009)
  7. Jo MJ, Jeong AR, Kim HJ, Lee NR, Oh SW, Kim YJ, Chun HS, Koo MS. Microbiological quality of fresh-cut produce and organic vegetables. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 43: 91-97 (2011)
  8. Chung JK, Kim MJ, Kee HY, Choi MH, Seo JJ, Kim SH, Park JT, Kim MG, Kim ES. Prevalence of food poisoning bacteria on hands in various age groups. J. Fd Hyg. Safety 23: 40-50 (2008)
  9. Kim KY, Song JE, Heo RW, Lee WG, Nam MJ, Kim JS, Shim WB, Gil JG, Jung CS, Park KY, Chung DH. Investigation and analysis of hazards for cultivation environment to establish the good agricultural practices (GAP) of soybean. Agri. Life Sci. 44: 121-132 (2010)
  10. Cho JI, Ha SD, Kim KS. Inhibitory effects of temperature, pH, and potassium sorbate against natural microflora in strawberry paste during storage. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 36: 355-360 (2004)
  11. Jeong EJ, Kim MH, Kim YS. Effect of pectinase treatment on extraction yield of the juice of fragaria ananassa duch and the quality characteristics of strawberry wine during ethanolic fermentation. Korean J. Food Preserv. 17: 72-78 (2010)
  12. Park KH, Kim SH. A comparative study of consumer preference for strawberries in korea and singapore. Korean J. Agric. Manag. Policy 38: 321-340 (2011)
  13. FDA. Fresh strawberries from washington county farm implicated in E. coli O157 outbreak in NW Oregon. Available from: Accessed Aug. 16, 2011.
  14. Heaton JC, Jones K. Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere: A review. J. Appl. Microbiol. 104: 613-626 (2008)
  15. Kim YS, Nam KS. Marketing strategy of agricultural products through combining several certification systems. Agri. Life Sci. 43: 73-82 (2009)
  16. Ha SD. Trend analysis of policies and managemental systems for food safety. Food Sci. Ind. 44: 29-37 (2011)
  17. McMahon MAS, Wilson IG. The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables. Int. J. Food Microbial. 70: 155-162 (2001)
  18. Hamilton JMT, Saroj S. Identity and antibiotic susceptibility of enterobacterial flora of salad vegetables. Int. J. Antimicrob. Ag. 18: 81-83 (2001)
  19. Kim SY. Implementation of GAP and its implications for food labeling and certification policies. Agri. Life Sci. 38: 21-32 (2004)
  20. Anonymous. Guidelines for effectiveness testing of surgical hand scrub (glove juice test). Fed. Regist. 43:1242-1243 (1978)
  21. KFDA. Korean Foods Code. Korea Food & Drug Administration, Cheongwon, Korea (2011)
  22. Kim JS, Shim WB, Kim JH, Kim SR, Chung DH. Sanitary microbial distribution at the tomato farms in western gyeongnam. Korean J. Environ. Health 32: 77-88 (2006)
  23. Kim SR, Lee JY, Lee SH, Ko HS, Yoon YH, Kwon SH, Ryu KY, Yun HJ, Kim WI, Yun JC, Kim DH, Chung DH. Distribution of microorganisms in perilla leaf and cultivation area. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 43: 243-248 (2011)
  24. Kim SR. Assessment of microbiological hazard for the construction of HACCP in non-pasteurized strawberry juice. MS thesis, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea (2005)
  25. Chio JW, Park SY, Yeon JH, Lee MJ, Chung DH, Lee KH, Kim MG, Lee DH, Kim KS, Ha SD. Microbial contamination levels of fresh vegetable distributed in markets. J. Fd. Hyg. Safety 20: 43-47 (2005)
  26. Bae YM, Hong YJ, Kang DH, Heu SK, Lee SY. Microbial and pathogenic contamination of ready-to-eat fresh vegetables in Korea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 43: 161-168 (2011)
  27. Harrigan W, McCance ME. Laboratory Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology. Academic Press Inc., Ltd., New York, NY, USA. pp. 231-236 (1976)
  28. FDA. Guidance for industry, guide to minimize microbial food safety hazard for fresh fruits and vegetables (October 26, 1998). Available at: Accessed Oct 21, 2008.

Cited by

  1. Investigation of Microbial Contamination in Liriope platyphylla at Post Harvest Environments vol.31, pp.2, 2016,
  2. Investigation of Microbial Contamination in Oenanthe javanica at Postharvest Environments vol.29, pp.4, 2014,
  3. Microbial Contamination Levels of Strawberries at Domestic Farms of South Korea vol.47, pp.6, 2014,
  4. Investigation of Microbial Contamination Levels between GAP and non-GAP Certified Farms of Lettuce and Cucumber vol.31, pp.6, 2016,
  5. Investigation of Hazards from Onions and Their Cultivation Areas to Establish a Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Model vol.45, pp.6, 2013,
  6. Microbial Hazard Analysis of Astragalus membranaceus Bunge for the Good Agricultural Practices vol.29, pp.3, 2014,