Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Korean Grains and Their Simultaneous Analysis

한국산 곡류에서의 곰팡이독소 오염현황 및 동시분석

  • Received : 2012.07.31
  • Accepted : 2012.11.07
  • Published : 2013.02.28


Eleven mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, and HT-2 toxin, were analyzed simultaneously in rice, barley, and maize produced in 2011 by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Limits of detection (LOD) are 0.2 ${\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxin $B_1$, and $G_1$, 0.3 ${\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxins $B_2$, and $G_2$, 0.1 ${\mu}g/kg$ for ochratoxin, fumonisins, zearalenone, and T-2 toxin and 3.0 ${\mu}g/kg$ for deoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.6 ${\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxins $B_1$, and $G_1$, 0.9 ${\mu}g/kg$ for aflatoxins $B_2$, and $G_2$, 0.3 ${\mu}g/kg$ for ochratoxin, fumonisins, zearalenone, and T-2 toxin and 10.0 ${\mu}g/kg$ for deoxynivalenol and HT-2 toxin. Recoveries for 11 mycotoxins ranged from 70.45 to 111.11%. Fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zaeralenone were detected from 0.9 to 334.0 ${\mu}g/kg$ in the polished rice, barley and raw corn cultivated in Korea. Other mycotoxins were not detected. Deoxynivalenol contamination was mainly found in barley (24 out of 43 samples) and the average value in positive samples was 113.30 ${\mu}g/kg$.


mycotoxins;simultaneous analysis;rice;barley;corn


  1. Binder EM, Tan LM, Chin LJ, Handl J, Richard J. Worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in commodities, feeds and feed ingredients. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 137: 265-282 (2007)
  2. D'Mello JPF, Macdonald AMC. Mycotoxins. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 69: 155-166 (1997)
  3. Flannigan B. Mycotoxins. In: Toxic Substances in Crop Plants. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. pp. 226-257 (1991)
  4. Decastelli L, Lai J, Gramaglia M, Monaco A, Nachtmann C, Oldano F, Ruffer M, Sezian A. Bandirola C. Aflatoxins occurance in milk and feed in Northern Italy during 2004-2005. Food Control 18: 1263-1266 (2007)
  5. Schlatter CH, Struder-Rohr J, Rasonyi TH. Carcinogenicity and kinetic aspects of ochratoxin A. Food Addit. Contam. 13: 43-44 (1996)
  6. D'Mello JPF, Placinta CM, Macdonald AMC. Fusarium mycotoxins: a review of global implications for animal health, welfare and productivity. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 80: 183-205 (1999)
  7. Ren Y, Zhang Y, Shao S, Cai Z, Feng L, Pan H, Wang Z. Simultaneous determination of multi-component mycotoxin contaminants in foods and feeds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A. 1143: 48-64 (2007)
  8. Park JW, Chung SH, Kim YB. Ochratoxin A in Korean food commodities: Occurrence and safety evaluation. J. Agr. Food Chem. 53: 4637-4642 (2005)
  9. Ok HE, Kim HJ, Cho TY, Oh KS, Chun HS. Determination of deoxynivalenol in cereal-based foods and estimation of dietary exposure. J. Toxicol. Env. Heal. A 72: 1424-1430 (2009)
  10. Boeira LS, Bryce JH, Stewart GG, Flannigan B. The effect of combinations of Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and fumonisin B1) on growth of brewing yeasts. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88: 388-403 (2000)
  11. Grenier B, Loureiro-Bracarense AP, Lucioli J, Pacheco GD, Cossalter AM, Moll WD, Schatzmayr G, Oswald IP. Individual and combined effects of subclinical doses of deoxynivalenol and fumonisins in piglets. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 55: 761-771 (2011)
  12. Verma J, Johri TS, Swain BK, Ameena S. Effect of graded levels of aflatoxin, ochratoxin and their combinations on the performance and immune response of broilers. Brit. Poultry Sci. 45: 512-518 (2004)
  13. Harvey RB, Edrington TS, Kubena LF, Elissalde MH, Rottinghaus GE. Influence of aflatoxin and fumonisin B1-containing culture material on growing barrows. Am. J. Vet. Res. 56: 1668- 1672 (1995)
  14. Ruiz MJ, Mackov P, Juan-Garca A, Font G. Cytotoxic effects of mycotoxin combinations in mammalian kidney cells. Food Chem. Toxicol. 49: 2718-2724 (2011)
  15. Tammer B, Lehmann I, Nieber K, Altenburger R. Combined effects of mycotoxin mixtures on human T cell function. Toxicol. Lett. 170: 124-133 (2007)
  16. Creppy EE, Chiarappa P, Baudrimont I, Borracci P, Moukha S, Carrat MR. Synergistic effects of fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A: are in vitro cytotoxicity data predictive of in vivo acute toxicity? Toxicology 201: 115-123 (2004)
  17. Berek L, Petri IB, Mesterhzy A, Tren J, Molnr J. Effects of mycotoxins on human immune functions in vitro. Toxicol. In Vitro. 15: 25-30 (2001)
  18. Kouadio JH, Dano SD, Moukha S, Mobio TA, Creppy EE. Effects of combinations of Fusarium mycotoxins on the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis, malondialdehyde levels, DNA methylation and fragmentation, and viability in Caco-2 cells. Toxicon 49: 306-317 (2007)
  19. Klaric MS, Rumora L, Ljubanovic D, Pepeljnjak S. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by fumonisin B1, beauvericin and ochratoxin A in porcine kidney PK15 cells: Effects of individual and combined treatment. Arch. Toxicol. 82: 247-255 (2008)
  20. Lattanzio VM, Solfrizzo M, Powers S, Visconti A. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and Fusarium toxins in maize by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after multitoxin immunoaffinity cleanup. Rapid Commun. Mass Sp. 21: 3253-3261 (2007)
  21. Kltzel M, Lauber U, Humpf HU. A new solid phase extraction clean-up method for the determination of 12 type A and B trichothecenes in cereals and cereal-based food by LC-MS/MS. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 50: 261-269 (2006)
  22. Lee T, Lee SH, Lee SH, Shin JY, Yun JC, Lee YW, Ryu JG. Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in rice and its milling byproducts in Korea. J. Food Protect. 74: 1169-1174 (2011)
  23. Ok HE, Chang HJ, Choi SW, Lee NR, Kim HJ, Koo MS, Chun HS. Co-occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in cereals and their products. J. Fd. Hyg. Safety 22: 375-381 (2007)
  24. Seo E, Yoon Y, Kim K, Shim WB, Kuzmina N, Oh KS, Lee JO, Kim DS, Suh J, Lee SH, Chung KH, Chung DH. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in agricultural products consumed in South Korea: An exposure assessment. J. Food Protect. 72: 436-440 (2009)
  25. Kim JC, Kang HJ, Lee DH, Lee YW, Yoshizawa T. Natural occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins (trichothecenes and zearalenone) in barley and corn in Korea. Appl. Environ. Microb. 59: 3798-3802 (1993)
  26. Park JW, Kim EK, Shon DH, Kim YB. Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A in barley and corn foods from Korea. Food Addit. Contam. 19: 1073-1080 (2002)
  27. Tanaka K, Sago Y, Zheng Y, Nakagawa H, Kushiro M. Mycotoxins in rice. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 119: 59-66 (2007)
  28. Sugita-Konishi Y, Nakajima M, Tabata S, Ishikuro E, Tanaka T, Norizuki H, Itoh Y, Aoyama K, Fujita K, Kai S, Kumagai S. Occurrence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and fumonisins in retail foods in Japan. J. Food Protect. 69: 1365-1370 (2006)
  29. Makun HA, Dutton MF, Njobeh PB, Mwanza M, Kabiru AY. Natural multi-occurrence of mycotoxins in rice from Niger State, Nigeria. Mycotoxin Res. 27: 97-104 (2011)

Cited by

  1. Simultaneous determination of the levels of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and nivalenol in grain and feed samples from South Korea using a high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detector vol.59, pp.6, 2016,
  2. Prevalence, Characterization, and Mycotoxin Production Ability of Fusarium Species on Korean Adlay (Coix lacrymal-jobi L.) Seeds vol.8, pp.12, 2016,
  3. Investigation of the Transfer Rate of Zearalenone in Herbal Medicines to Their Decoction vol.45, pp.3, 2013,
  4. Distribution Analysis of Twelve Mycotoxins in Corn and Corn-Derived Products by LC-MS/MS to Evaluate the Carry-Over Ratio during Wet-Milling vol.10, pp.8, 2018,