Effect of Heating on DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Meat Substitute

  • Song, Hyeun Sung (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dong-A University) ;
  • Bae, Jun Kyu (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dong-A University) ;
  • Park, Inshik (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Dong-A University)
  • Received : 2012.09.17
  • Accepted : 2013.01.31
  • Published : 2013.03.31


This study was conducted to evaluate the increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute by heating. The meat substitute showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than those of other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was dependent upon concentration, heating temperature and heating time of meat substitute. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of meat substitute was enhanced with increasing heating temperature and time. The increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity was only applied to meat substitute without showing any activation in other foods rich in protein such as beef, pork, chicken, and soybean curd.


  1. Hoek AC, Luning PA, Weijzen P, Engels W, Kok FJ, de Graaf C. 2011. Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance. Appetite 56: 662-673.
  2. Davis J, Lighttowler H. 1998. Plant-based alternatives to meat. Nutr Food Sci 2: 90-94.
  3. Sadler MJ. 2005. Meat alternatives. Market developments and health benefit. Trends Food Sci Technol 15: 250-260.
  4. McIlveen H, Abraham C, Amstrong C. 1999. Meat avoidance and the role of replacers. Nutr Food Sci 1: 29-36.
  5. Hoek AC, Luning PA, Stafleu A, de Graaf C. 2004. Food related life style and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes. Appetite 42:265-272.
  6. Janda S, Trocchia PJ. 2001. Vegetarianism. Toward a greater understanding. Psychol Market 18: 1205-1240.
  7. Elzerman JE, Hoek AC, van Boekel MAJS, Luning PA. 2011. Consumer acceptance and appropriateness of meat substitutes in a meal context. Food Qual Pref 22: 233-240.
  8. Corpet D. 2011. Red meat and colon cancer: Should we become vegetarians, or can we make meat safe? Meat Sci 89:310-316.
  9. Alexander DD, Cushing CA, Lowe KA, Sceuman B, Roberts MA. 2009. Meta-analysis of animal fat or animal protein intake and colorectal cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 89: 1402-1409.
  10. Cross AJ, Ferrucci LM, Risch A, Graubard BI, Waed M, Park Y. 2010. A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: An investigation of potential mechanism underlying this association. Cancer Res 70: 2406-2414.
  11. Wyness L, Weichselbaum E, O'Conner A, Williams EB, Benelam B, Riley H, Stanner S. 2011. Red meat in the diet: an update. Nutr Bull 36: 34-77.
  12. Lewin MH, Bailey N, Bandaletova T, Bowman R, Cross AJ, Pollaock J. 2006. Red meat enhances the colonic formation of the DNA adduct of $O^6$-carboxymethyl guanine: Implication of colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Res 66: 1859-1865.
  13. Allam O, Bahuaud D, Tache S, Naud N, Corpet DE, Pierre FH. 2011. Calcium carbonate suppresses haem toxicity markers without calcium phosphate side effect on colon carcinogenesis. Brit J Nutr 105: 384-392.
  14. Rowland I. 1985. The effect of diet on mammalian gut flora and its metabolic activities. Crit Rev Toxicol 16: 31-103.
  15. Ling WH. 1995. Diet and colonic microflora interaction in colorectal cancer. Nutr Res 15:439-454.
  16. Hamby RJ, Rumney CJ, Fletcher JME, Rijke PJ, Rowland IR. 1997. Effects of high- and low-risk diets on gut microfloraassociated biomarkers of colon cancer in human floraassociated rats. Nutr Cancer 27: 250-255.
  17. Kassie F, Lhoste EF, Brueau A, Zsivkovists M, Ferk F, Uhl M, Zidiek T, Knasmullen S. 2004. Effect of intestinal microfloras from vegetarians and meat eaters on the genotoxicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, a carcinogenic heterocyclic amine. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 802: 211-215.
  18. Dziezak JD. 1986. Antioxidants: The ultimate answer to oxidation. Food Technol 40: 94-102.
  19. Frankel EN, Waterhouse AL, Teissedre P. 1995. Principal phenolic phytochemicals in selected California wine and their antioxidant activity in inhibiting oxidation of human low density lipoproteins. J Agric Food Chem 43: 890-894.
  20. Gazzani G, Papetti A, Massolini G, Daglia M. 1998. Antioxidative and pro-oxidant activity of water soluble components of some common diet vegetables and the effect of thermal treatment. J Food Chem 6: 4118-4122.
  21. Yen GC, Wu SC, Duh PD. 1996. Extraction and identification of antioxidant components from the leaves of mulberry. J Agric Food Chem 44: 1687-1690.
  22. Miyake T, Shibamoto T. 1997. Antioxidative activities of Natural compounds found in plants. J Agric Food Chem 45:1819-1822.
  23. Steinberg D. 1991. Antioxidants and atherosclerosis. A current assessment. Circulation 84: 1420-1425.
  24. Ames BN, Shigenga MK, Hagen TM. 1993. Oxidants, antioxidants and degenerative diseases of ageing. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 90: 7915-7922.
  25. Formica JV, Regelsom W. 1995. Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoids. Food Chem Toxicol 33:1061-1080.
  26. Pitta PG. 2000. Flavonoids as antioxidant. J Nat Prod 63:1035-1042.
  27. Rice-Evens CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G. 1997. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compound. Trends Plant Sc Rev 2:152-159.
  28. Cotelle N, Bernier JL, Catteau JP, Pommery J, Wallet JC, Gaydou EM. 1996. Antioxidant properties of hydroxylflavones. Free Rad Biol Med 20: 35-43.
  29. Zin ZM, Abdul-Hamid A, Osman A. 2002. Antioxidative activity of extracts from Mengkudu (Morindacitrifolia L.) root, fruit and leaf. Food Chem 78: 227-231.
  30. Song H, Kim O. 2008. Natural Diet. Koyoachim, Seoul, Korea. p 130.
  31. Blios MS. 1958. Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200
  32. Gutfinger T. 1981. Polyphenols in olive oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 58: 966-968.
  33. Charanjit K, Harish CK. 2001. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables-the millennium's health. Int J Food Sci Technol 36:703-725.
  34. Proteggente AR, Pannala AS, Paganga G, Van BL, Wagner E, Wiseman S, Van DPF, Dacombe C, Rice-Evans CA. 2002. The antioxidant activity of regularly consumed fruit and vegetables reflects their phenolic and vitamin C composition. Free Rad Res 36: 217-233.
  35. Shela G, Milena C, Ivana M, Ratiporn, H, Park YS, Jung ST, Kazutaka Y, Alma LMA, Elena K, Simon T. 2004. Characterization of antioxidant compounds in Jaffa sweeties and white grapefruits. Food Chem 84: 503-510.
  36. Adefegha SA, Oboh G. 2011. Cooking enhances the antioxidant properties of some tropical green leafy vegetables. Afr J Biotechnol 10: 632-639.
  37. Dewanto V, Wu X, Liu RH. 2002. Processed sweet corn has higher antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 50: 4959- 4964.
  38. Yilmaz Y, Toledo R. 2005. Antioxidant activity of watersoluble reaction products. Food Chem 93: 273-278
  39. Namki M. 1988. Chemistry of Maillard reaction: recent studies of on the browning reaction mechanism and the development of antioxidants and mutagens. Adv Food Res 32:115-184.

Cited by

  1. Properties and Antioxidant Action of Actives Cassava Starch Films Incorporated with Green Tea and Palm Oil Extracts vol.9, pp.9, 2014,
  2. Effects of incorporation of sugarcane fibre on the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken sausage pp.09505423, 2018,