- Volume 42 Issue 5
DOI QR Code
Antioxidant Activity of Panax ginseng Flower-buds Fermented with Various Microorganisms
발효 미생물에 따른 인삼꽃의 항산화 활성
- Kim, Kyoung-Hee (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University) ;
- Kim, Da-Mi (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University) ;
- Byun, Myung-Woo (Dept. of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University) ;
- Yun, Young-Sik (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University) ;
- Yook, Hong-Sun (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University)
- 김경희 (충남대학교 식품영양학과) ;
- 김다미 (충남대학교 식품영양학과) ;
- 변명우 (우송대학교 외식조리영양학부) ;
- 윤영식 (충남대학교 식품영양학과) ;
- 육홍선 (충남대학교 식품영양학과)
- Received : 2013.01.10
- Accepted : 2013.03.20
- Published : 2013.05.31
To improve the use of ginseng flower-buds, antioxidant activities of ginseng flower-buds fermented using a variety of useful microorganisms were analyzed. Non-fermented grape pomace was used as a control, while fermentation was carried out using Bacillus subtilis (BS), Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), Lactobacillus casei (LC), Candida utilis (CU), Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CHY1011 (Y1), Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain ZP 541 (Y2), and a mixed-strain culture with LP, LC, and CU (M). The total polyphenol content of ginseng flower-buds was highest in the control compared to the other fermented ginseng flower-buds. DPPH radical and ABTS radical scavenging activity were also highest in fermented group by BS. The FRAP value (10 mg/mL) was highest in the control group but did not show a significant difference in the fermented group by BS. The highest reducing power activity was in the fermented group by LC compared to the other group, including the control. Therefore, the fermentation of ginseng flower-buds using various microorganisms, shows that fermentation with the Bacillus subtilis strain increases antioxidant activity. More research of its effects on other physiological activities will be needed.
Supported by : 한국연구재단
- Lee NR, Han JS, Kim JS, Choi JE. 2011. Effects of extraction temperature and time on ginsenoside content and quality in ginseng (Panax ginseng) flower water extract. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 19: 271-275. https://doi.org/10.7783/KJMCS.2011.19.4.271
- Nam KY. 2005. The comparative understanding between red ginseng and white ginsengs, processed ginsengs (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). J Ginseng Res 29: 1-18. https://doi.org/10.5142/JGR.2005.29.1.001
- Choi JE, Li X, Han YH, Lee KT. 2009. Changes of saponin contents of leaves, stems and flower-buds of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer by harvesting days. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 17: 251-256.
- Kim HG, Kim KY, Cha CJ. 2007. Screening for ginsengfermenting microorganisms capable of biotransforming ginsenosides. Korean J Microbiol 43: 142-146.
- Senthil K, Veena V, Mahalakshmi M, Pulla R, Yang DC, Parvatham R. 2009. Microbial conversion of major ginsenoside Rb1 to minor ginsenoside Rd by Indian fermented food bacteria. Afr J Biotechnol 8: 6961-6966.
- Park SJ, Kim DH, Paek NS, Kim SS. 2006. Preparation and quality characteristics of the fermentation product of ginseng by lactic acid bacteria (FGL). J Ginseng Res 30:88-94. https://doi.org/10.5142/JGR.2006.30.2.088
- Ramesh T, Kim SW, Sung JH, Hwang SY, Sohn SH, Yoo SK, Kim SK. 2012. Effect of fermented Panax ginseng extract (GINST) on oxidative stress and antioxidant activities in major organs of aged rats. Exp Gerontol 47: 77-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2011.10.007
- Kong BM, Park MJ, Min JW, Kim HB, Kim SH, Kim SY, Yang DC. 2008. Physico-chemical characteristics of white, fermented and red ginseng extracts. J Ginseng Res 32:238-243. https://doi.org/10.5142/JGR.2008.32.3.238
- Kim NY, Han MJ. 2005. Development of ginseng yoghurt fermented by Bifidobacterium spp. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 21: 575-584.
- Folin O, Denis W. 1912. On phosphotungastic-phosphomolybdic compounds as color reagents. J Biol Chem 12: 239-243.
- Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200. https://doi.org/10.1038/1811199a0
- Fellegrini N, Ke R, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. 1999. Screening of dietary carotenoids and carotenoid-rich fruit extracts for antioxidant activities applying 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylenebenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay. Methods Enzymol 299: 379-389. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99037-7
- Benzie IF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of "antioxidant power": the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 230: 70-76.
- Oyaizu M. 1986. Studies on product of browning reaction prepared from glucose amine. Jap J Nutr 44: 307-315. https://doi.org/10.5264/eiyogakuzashi.44.307
- Alpen EL, Mandel HG. 1960. A rapid assay method for tritium in bacterial cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 43: 317-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3002(60)90442-X
- Yu MH, Im HG, Lee HJ, Ji YJ, Lee IS. 2006. Components and their antioxidative activities of methanol extracts from sarcocarp and seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis Rehder. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38: 128-134.
- Doh ES, Chang JP, Lee KH, Seong NS. 2010. Ginsenoside change and antioxidation activity of fermented ginseng. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 18: 255-265.
- Ahn SI, Heuing BJ, Son JY. 2007. Antioxidative activity and nitrite-scavenging abilities of some phenolic compounds. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 23: 19-24.
- Park JW, Lee YJ, Yoon S. 2007. Total flavonoids and phenolics in fermented soy products and their effects on antioxidant activities determined by different assays. Korean J Food Culture 22: 353-358.
- Kim KS, Lee KH, Choi KJ, Kwak YK, Sim KS, Lee KH, Chung HY. 1996. Screening of antioxidative components from red ginseng saponin. Korean J Ginseng Sci 20: 173-178.
- Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL. 2005. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays. J Agric Food Chem 53: 1841-1856. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf030723c
- Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26: 1231-1237. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3
- Kim SJ, Kim SM, Kang SW, Um BH. 2010. The rapid detection of antioxidants from safflower seeds (Carthamus tinctorius L.) using hyphenated-HPLC techniques. Korean J Food Sci Technol 42: 414-419.
- Griffin SP, Bhagooli R. 2004. Measuring antioxidant potential in corals using the FRAP assay. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 302: 201-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2003.10.008
- Ku KM, Kim HS, Kim BS, Kang YH. 2009. Antioxidant activities and antioxidant constituents of pepper leaves from various cultivars and correlation between antioxidant activities and antioxidant constituents. J Appl Biol Chem 52: 70-76. https://doi.org/10.3839/jabc.2009.013
- Ryu JS. 2012. Chemical composition and biological functions of red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) fermented by Phelinus linteus mycelia. PhD Dissertation. Dankook University, Chunan, Korea. p 66.
- Chaiyasut C, Kumar T, Tipduangta P, Rungseevijitprapa W. 2010. Isoflavone content and antioxidant activity of Thai fermented soybean and its capsule formulation. Afr J Biotechnol 9: 4120-4126.
- Kim JH, Kim JK, Kang WW, Ha YS, Choi SW, Moon KD. 2003. Chemical composition and DPPH radical scavenger activity in different sections of safflower. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 32: 733-738. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.5.733
- Duh PD. 1998. Antioxidant activity of burdock (Arctium lappa Linne): Its scavenging effect on free-radical and active oxygen. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75: 455-461. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-998-0248-8
- Efficacy of orally administered ginseng stem and leaf in chickens vol.55, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.14405/kjvr.2015.55.1.1
- Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method vol.41, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2017.03.003
- Antioxidant Activities of Amaranth (Amaranthus spp. L.) Flower Extracts vol.27, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2014.27.2.175
- Changes in the ginsenoside content during the fermentation process using microbial strains vol.39, pp.4, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2015.05.005
- 아마란스 종자 추출물의 라디칼 저해활성 vol.18, pp.2, 2014, https://doi.org/10.13050/foodengprog.2014.18.2.116
- Quality Characteristics of Yakgwa Added with Ginseng Fruit, Leaf and Root vol.42, pp.12, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.12.1981
- and their improved bioactivities vol.34, pp.7, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/87559129.2018.1424183