DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of the Proximity of Photosynthesis Concepts In Korean Students

  • Kim, Youngshin (Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Jeong, Jae-Hoon (Dalsung Primary School) ;
  • Lim, Soo-Min (Kyungpook National University)
  • Received : 2013.03.09
  • Accepted : 2013.04.14
  • Published : 2013.05.31

Abstract

Multidimensional scaling can be used to identify relationships among concepts, revealing the structure of the cognitive framework by measuring distances within perceptual maps. The current study sought to examine the relationships among concepts related to photosynthesis in 2,844 $3^{rd}-11^{th}$ grade science students. The questionnaire included items on 'location,' 'products,' 'reactants,' and 'environmental factors', presenting images related to each theme. Students provided responses corresponding to particular topics, and reported the extent to which the concept was related to the topic on a scale from 1 to 30. The survey results were as follows: first, students were not able to clearly distinguish between or understand the four main topics. Second, students organized their cognitive structures by closely associating related concepts after learning. Third, the presented concepts revealed a mixture of scientific and non-scientific concepts, suggesting that students needed to clearly distinguish the preconceptions through which they organized concepts, so that they are suitable for cognitive structures based on learning. Furthermore, non-scientific concepts within perceptions were consistently maintained throughout learning, affecting the proximity of scientific concepts.

Keywords

multidimensional scaling (MDS);proximity;photosynthesis;location of photosynthesis;products of photosynthesis;reactants of photosynthesis;environmental factors

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF)

References

  1. Borg, I., & Lingoes, J. (1987). Multidimensional similarity structure analysis. New York: Springer.
  2. Canal, P. (1999). Photosynthesis and inverse respiration in plants: An inevitable misconception?. International Journal of Science Education, 21(4), 363-371. https://doi.org/10.1080/095006999290598
  3. Caramazza, A., & Shelton, J. (1998). Domainspecific knowledge systems in the brain: The animate-inanimate distinction. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10(1), 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1162/089892998563752
  4. Cho, H. (1994). Scientific concepts easy to misunderstanding. Seoul: Jeonpa-science Printing & Publishing Company.
  5. Chung, H., Park, H., Lim, Y., & Lim, J. (2005). The analysis of the connection of the terms and the inquiry about the photosynthesis in the middle and high school science textbooks by the 7th curriculum. The Korean Journal of Biological Education, 33(2), 196-208.
  6. Chung, W. (1993). A study on the biological misconceptions of Korean high school students. PhD diss., Seoul National University, Korea.
  7. Confrey, J. (1987). "Misconceptions"across subject matters: Science, mathematics and programming. Proceedings of the Second International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational Strategies in Science and Mathematics, 1, pp.81-106. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University.
  8. Griffard, P., & Wandersee, J. (2001). "The two-tier instrument on photosynthesis: What does it diagnose?". International Journal of Science Education, 23(10), 1039-1052. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690110038549
  9. Haslam, F., & Treagust, D. (1987). Diagonising secondary students' misconceptions of photosynthesis and respiration in plants using two-tier multiple choice instruction. Journal of Biological Education, 21(3), 203-211. https://doi.org/10.1080/00219266.1987.9654897
  10. Hewson, P. (1992). Conceptual change in science teaching and teacher education. Paper presented at a meeting on "Research and Curriculum Development in Science Teaching", Madrid: Spain, June 1992.
  11. Hewson, P., & Hewson, A. (1984). The role of conceptual conflict in conceptual conflict in conceptual change and the design if science instruction. Instructional Science, 13(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00051837
  12. Ifenthaler, D., Masduki, I., & Seel, N. (2011). The mystery of cognitive structure and how we can detect it: tracking the development of cognitive structures over time. Instructional Science, 39, 41- 61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11251-009-9097-6
  13. Kose, S. (2008). Diagnosing student misconconceptions: Using grawings as a research method. World Applied Sciences Journal, 3(2), 283-293.
  14. Krall, R., Lott, K., & Wymer, C. (2009). Inservice elementary and middle school teachers' conceptions of photosynthesis and respiration. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 20, 41-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10972-008-9117-4
  15. Lee, H., Byun, D., & Kim, C. (1998). Analysis of interspecific association and ordination on the forest vegetation of Mt. Odae. Korean Journal of Ecology, 21(3), 291-300.
  16. Lee, H. (2012). Analysis of concept's diversity and proximity of 7th grade students' photosynthesis concepts by the level of science attitude. MD thesis, Kyungpook National University, Korea.
  17. Lim, S., Yoon, I., & Kim, Y. (2012a). Analysis of level of understanding of 7th and 8th grade students on photosynthesis concepts by curriculum revision. The Korean Society of Biology Education, 40(2), 179-194.
  18. Lim, S., Jeong, J., & Kim, Y. (2012b). Analysis of concept's diversity and proximity for photosynthesis in grade 7 students. The Korean Association for Science Education, 32(6), 1050- 1062.
  19. Manuel, C. (2005). Ecology -Concept and Applications-. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  20. Masson, M. (1995). A distributed memory model of semantic priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(1), 3-23.
  21. Milne, G., & Mason, C. (1989). An ecological niche theory approach to the measurement of brand competition. Marketing Letters, 1(3), 267- 281.
  22. Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2008). Middle school curriculum(III): Mathematics , science, technology. Seoul: Daehan Printing & Publishing Company.
  23. Ray, A., & Beardsley, P. (2008). Overcoming student misconceptions about photosynthesis: a model and inquiry based approach using aquatic plants. Science Activities, 45(1), 13-22.
  24. Riemeier, T., & Gropengieer, H. (2008). On the roots of difficulties in learning about cell division: Process-based analysis of students' conceptual development in teaching experiments. International Journal of Science Education, 30(7), 923-939. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690701294716
  25. Snow, R. (1989). Toward assessment of cognitive and conative structures in learning. Educational Researcher, 18(9), 8-14. https://doi.org/10.2307/1176713
  26. Sternberg, R. (1999). Cognitive psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace.
  27. Strike, K., & Posner, G. (1985). A conceptual change view of learning and understand. In L. H. T. West, & A. L. Pines(Eds), Cognitive Structure and Conceptual Change. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
  28. Taber, K. (2001). Shifting sands: A case study of conceptual development as competition between alternative conception. International Journal of Science Education, 23(7), 731-753. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690010006572
  29. Tyler, L., Moss, H., Durrant-Peatfield, M., & Levy, J. (2000). Conceptual structure and the structure of concepts: A distributed account of category-specific deficits. Brain and Language, 75(2), 195-231. https://doi.org/10.1006/brln.2000.2353
  30. Wood-Robinson, C. (1991). Young people's ideas about plants. Studies in Science Education, 19, 119-135. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057269108559995
  31. Yenilmez, A., & Tekkaya, C. (2006). Enhancing students'understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plant through conceptual change approach. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15(1), 81-87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-006-0358-8