Comparison of the organic acids, fusel oil contents and antioxidant activities of Yakju with the additions of various rice cultivars

쌀 품종별 약주의 유기산, fusel oil 함량 및 항산화활성 비교

  • Huh, Chang-Ki (Imsil Institute of Cheese Science) ;
  • Lee, Jung-Won (Department of Food Science and Technology, Sunchon National University) ;
  • Kim, Yong-Doo (Department of Food Science and Technology, Sunchon National University)
  • Received : 2013.02.26
  • Accepted : 2013.06.05
  • Published : 2013.06.30


The organic acids, fuel oil contents and antioxidant activities of Yakju with the addition of rice varieties were investigated. The rice cultivars that were used in this study were Ilmi rice, Hopyung rice, Hopum rice, Hanarum rice, Anda rice and Indica rice. The study results are as follows: the pH values of Ilmi Yakju and Hanarum Yakju were 4.14 and 4.07, respectively, and those of the other Yakjus, 3.92~3.98. The total titratable acid content of the Yakju for which Indica rice was imported from Thailand was highest among the samples. The reducing sugars content of the Yakju for which Indica rice was used was higher than that of the other samples. The ethanol content of the Hanarum Yakju was higher than that of the other Yakjus, and the lowest ethanol content was found for the Indica Yakju. The major organic acid component of the Yakju was lactic acid. The total organic acid content was highest in the Indica rice Yakju. The amounts of the following main fusel oils were highest, in the following order: 2-butyl alcohol, 2-pentanol, N-propyl alcohol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methyl alcohol and 2-methyl-1-propyl alcohol. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the Indica rice Yakju was much higher than that of the Ilmi rice Yakju and the Hanarum rice Yakju. Also, the SOD activity of the Indica rice Yakju was strongest among all the samples. The total polyphenol content of the Indica rice Yakju was the highest among all the samples.


Supported by : 전남농업기술원


  1. Ikehashi H (2009) Why are there Indica type and Japonica type in rice? - History of the studies and a view for origin of two types. Rice Sci, 16, 1-13
  2. Stork CR, Silva LP, Fagundes CAA (2005) Catergorizing rice cultivars based on differences in chemical composition. J Food Comp Anal, 18, 333-341
  3. Lee JD, Lee YS, Cho YC, Kang CS, Park KY, Kim YH (2002) Plant breeding aspects of genomics : abstracts for poster presentation ; Development of cultivars and elite lines : Quantification of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in brown rice by using a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Korean J breeding, 34, 71
  4. Kim YS, Park SR, Lee YS, Koh JH, Kim HS (2005) Determination of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in rice cooked with various cereals. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 34, 1289-1292
  5. Jang YJ (2004) Screening of antioxidative activities for functional rice and effects of supplementation of functional rice on the cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats. MS Thesis. Kyungpook National University, Korea, p 5-7
  6. Ha TY (2008) Health functional properties of rice. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 13, 22-26
  7. Lee GH (1994) Characteristic and new technology of Korean Takju. Korean J Appl Microbiol Bioeng, 7, 36-46
  8. Jang JH (1989) The history of Korean alcohol, Korean J Dietary Culture, 4, 271-274
  9. Kim JS, Ko SH, Lee WY, Kim GW (2004) Cytotoxic effects of Korean rice wine (Yakju) on cancer cells. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 36, 812-817
  10. So MH (1999) Characteristics of a modified Nuruk made by inoculation of traditional Nuruk microorganisms. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 12, 219-225
  11. Huh CK (2006) Effect of recipe for chestnut wine on fermentation and quality characteristics. MS Thesis. Sunchon National University, Korea, p 50-51
  12. Hatakana C, Kobara Y (1989) Determination of glucose by a modification of Somogyi-Nelson method. Agric Biol Chem, 44, 2943-2949
  13. Gancedo MC, Luh BS (1986) HPLC analysis of organic acids and sugar in tomato juice. J Food Sci, 51, 571-580
  14. Abe N, Nemoto A, Tsuchiya Y, Hojo H, Hirota A (2000). study of the 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging mechanism for a 2-pyrone compound. Biosci Biotech Biochem, 64, 306-333
  15. Yamachuchi T, Takamura H, Matoba T, Terao J (1998). HPLC method for evalution of the free radical-scavenging activity of foods by 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Biosci Biotech Biochem, 62, 1201-1204
  16. Blois MS (1958) Antioxidant determination by the use of a stable free radical. Nature, 26, 1199-1744
  17. Marklund S, Marklund G (1974) Involvement of superoxide anion radical in the oxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem, 47, 467-474
  18. Joslyn MA (1970) Methods in food analysis. Acad Press. NY, USA, p 710-711
  19. So MH, Yu TJ (1993) The effect of medium-cooked rice on the production of Korean traditional Yakju. Korean J Food Nutr, 6, 189-198
  20. Joung EJ, Paek NS, Kim YM (2004) Studies on Korean Takju using the by product of rice milling. Korean J Food Nutr, 17, 199-205
  21. Jun HS (2007) A comparative study on quality characteristics of fermented wine made with imported and domestic rices. MS Thesis. Kyung Hee University, Korea, p 21-49
  22. In HY, Lee TS, Lee DS, Noh BS (1995) Volatile components and fusel oils of Sojues and Mashes Brewed by Korean traditional method. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 27, 235-240
  23. Lee MK, Lee SW, Yoon TH (1994) Quality assessment of Yakju brewed with conventional nuruk. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 23, 78-89
  24. Jeon SY (1998) Screening of strains and zymological characteristics of millet wine and distilled liquor, a traditional wine in Cheju Island. MS Thesis. Cheju National University, Korea, p 40-43
  25. Cha JY, Jung HJ, Jeong JJ, Yang HJ, Kim YT, Lee YS (2009) Effects of amino acids on the activities of alcohol metabolizing enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). J Life Sci, 19, 1321-1327
  26. Song ES, Park SJ, Woo NRA, Won MH, Choi JS, Kim JG, Kang H (2005) Antioxidant capacity of colored barely extracts by varieties. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 34, 1491-1497
  27. Chang NS, Ryu SM (2001) Antioxidative effects of green tea powder diet against ethanol-induced oxidative damage in rat brain region. Korean J Nutr, 34, 525-531
  28. Boudet AM (2007) Evalution and current status of research in phenolic compounds. Phytochem, 68, 2722-2735.
  29. Kwang JY (2010) Development and quality feature of colored tradition wine fermented using black rice. MS Thesis. Dong-A University, Korea, p 27-28
  30. Kim NS (2009) Fermentation characteristics of green tea-added wine. MS Thesis. Chonnam National University, Korea, p 58-60
  31. Lee SH, Kang KM, Park HJ, Baek LM (2009) Physiological characteristics of medicinal plant for use functional materials in seasoning sauce for pork meat. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 41, 100-105
  32. Park YJ, Park YS, Towantakavanit K, Park JO, Kim YM, Jung KJ, Cho JY, Lee KD, Heo BG (2009) Chemical components an biological activity of Stauntonia hexaphylla. Korean J Plant Res, 22, 403-411
  33. Guo DJ, Cheng HL, Yu PH (2008) Antioxidative activities and total phenolic contents of tonic Chinese medicinal herbs. Inflammopharm, 16, 201-207

Cited by

  1. Quality characteristics of rice and rice starch-based Yakju vol.22, pp.3, 2015,
  2. Formation of biogenic amines and bioactivities of Makgeolli under different fermentation conditions vol.23, pp.3, 2016,
  3. Effect of the addition of protein and lipid on the quality characteristics of Yakju vol.22, pp.3, 2015,
  4. Quality Characteristics of Yakju with Nuruk Extracts vol.48, pp.3, 2016,