The Effect of Occlusal Condition on Physical Fitness and Motor Capacity in Athletes According to Various Types of Mouthguards

마우스가드의 형태가 운동선수의 체력 및 운동능력에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2012.12.05
  • Accepted : 2013.03.25
  • Published : 2013.03.30


This study examined the effects of the occlusal stability and a partial coverage mouthguard on physical fitness and motor capacity to determine the importance of the occlusal stability as a possible action mechanism of mouthguards on physical performance. Twenty physical education students were included for measurements of their handgrip strength, back strength, whole body reaction time, flexibility, sidestep test, stork stand test and jumping test according to the following 5 different occlusal conditions: mouth closed position without a mouthguard, with a full coverage mouthguard, with a right partial coverage mouthguard, with a left partial coverage mouthguard and with anterior partial mouthguard. The results revealed no significant difference in any of the measured physical factors between the occlusal conditions with and without a full-coverage mouthguard. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed in whole body reaction between the occlusal conditions with and without the partial coverage mouthguards. Therefore, isokinetic muscle tests on both knee joints and the Wingate anaerobic power test should be performed under the following five occlusal conditions: with or without full-coverage maxillary custom-made mouthguard, with a unilateral right or left partial-coverage maxillary mouthguard and with an anterior partial-coverage maxillary mouthguard. These results suggest that the partial coverage mouthguard had a short-term beneficial effect on agility rather than full coverage mouthguard.


full coverage;mouthguard;occlusal conditions;partial coverage;whole body reaction


  1. Lim IS, Kim JH. The changes of performance and stress hormone following acute exercise after sleep deprivation. Exercise Science 2000;9(1);173-180.
  2. Tardieu C, Dumitrescu M, Giraudeau A, Blanc JL, Cheynet F, Borel L. Dental occlusion and postural control in adults. Neurosci Lett 2009 Jan 30;450(2): 221-224.
  3. Hyun KY, Lee SW. A study on the effect of mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance (MORA) on back muscle strength. Korean Journal of Oral Medicine 1985:10(1);113-124.
  4. Welch MJ, Edington CDM, Ritter MR. Muscular strength and temporomandibular joint repositioning. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;7(5):236-239.
  5. McArdle WD, Goldstein LB, Last FC, Spina R, Lichtman S, Meyer JE, Berger AI. Temporomandibular joint repositioning and exercise performance: a double-blind study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1984 Jun; 16(3):228-233.
  6. Cetin C, Kececi AD, Erdogan A, Baydar ML. Influence of custom-made mouth guards on strength, speed and anaerobic performance of taekwondo athletes. Dental Traumatol 2009;25:272-276.
  7. Lee JW. The effects of mouthguards on the athletic performance of elite taekwondo athletes. Kyunghee University DMD Thesis 2011.
  8. Hanke BA, Motschall E, Turp JC. Association between orthopedic and dental findings: what level of evidence is available? J Orofac Orthop 2007;68:91-
  9. Gelb H, Bernstein I. Clinical evaluation of two hundred patients with temporomandibular joint syndrome. J Prosthet Dent 1983 Feb;49:234-243.
  10. Gelb H, Mehta NR, Forgione AG. The relationship between jaw posture and muscular strength in sports dentistry: a reappraisal. Cranio 1996 Oct;14(4):320-
  11. Gelb H, Tarte J. A two-year clinical dental evaluation of 200 cases of chronic headache: the craniocervical -mandibular syndrome. J Am Dent Assoc 1975 Dec;91(6): 1230-1236.
  12. Allen ME, Walter P, McKay C, Elmajian A. Occlusal splints (MORA) vs. placebos show no difference in strength in symptomatic subjects: double blind/crossover study. Can J Appl Sport Sci 1984 Sep;9(3): 148-152.
  13. Burkett LN, Bernstein A. The effect of mandibular position on strength, reaction time and movement time on a randomly selected population. N Y State Dent J 1983 May;49(5):281-285.
  14. Francis KT, Brasher J. Physiological effects of wearing mouthguards. Br J Sports Med 1991;25: 227-231.
  15. Verban EM, Groppel JL, Pfautsch EW, Ramseyer GC. The effects of mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance on shoulder strength. J Craniomandibular Pract 1984 Jun-Aug;2(3):232-237.
  16. Yoo RK. The effects of mouthguards on the athletic ability of professional golf players. Kyunghee University MSD Thesis 2008.
  17. Takashi Ohyama. Sports mouth guard handbook. Koonja Publishing Inc 2008.
  18. Lee YG, Lee HW. The effect of mind control training on the heart rate and athletic performance factors of middle school boxers. Journal of Kyungnam Physical Education 2002;7(2):69-78.
  19. Newsome PR, Tran DC, Cooke MS. The role of the mouthguard in the prevention of sports related dental injuries: a review. Int J Paediatr Dent 2001;11:396-404.
  20. ADA Council on Access, Prevention and Interprofessional Relations, ADA Council on Scientific Affairs. Using mouthguards to reduce the incidence and severity of sports-related oral injuries. J Am Dent Assoc 2006 Dec;137(12):1712-1720.
  21. Kececi AD, Cetin C, Eroglu E, Baydar ML. Do custom-made mouthguards have negative effects on aerobic performance capacity of athletes? Dent Traumatol 2005 Oct;21(5):276-280.
  22. Schubert MM, Guttu RL, Hunter LH, Hall R, Thomas R. Changes in shoulder and leg strength in athletes wearing mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliances. J Am Dent Assoc 1984 Mar;108(3):334-