- Volume 14 Issue 1
The purpose of this study was to analyze human upper body surface changes at the shoulder and back area. The body surface data were analyzed in terms of muscle and bone displacement in dynamic postures. Body surface data were collected with a 3D body scanner. The body surface was scanned at the static and four baseball batting postures. The body surface dimensions over the deltoids, scapulae and trapezius were measured. The results show that the vertical measurements of the deltoids increased by 20%. The horizontal measurements of the axilla of the back increased. The surface of the trapezius was elongated by over 10%, and the lower back musculature was elongated by about 50%. The results of this study showed that changes in back body surface caused by upper arm movements. It was influenced by the deltoid articulated with the humeri and the scapulae and trapezius. These body surface changes caused by muscle activities and ranges of motion can be used to design functional clothing.
Body surface;upper arm;dynamic posture;3D body scanning
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