- Volume 14 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Residents' Preference for Spatial Features in Sitting Areas at Assisted Living Facilities - Focused on direct or indirect social interaction for older adults -
Lee, Min-Ah;Rodiek, Susan D.
- Received : 2013.03.25
- Accepted : 2013.05.08
- Published : 2013.06.30
This study investigated residents' preferences for spatial features of sitting areas in assisted living facilities, and provides recommendations for planning sitting areas to support residents' spatial preferences and social interaction. The study participants were 69 residents of eight assisted living facilities (30+ resident capacity), located in south central Texas. A photographic comparison method was used, in which residents were shown 20 matched pairs of photos, with a single feature digitally modified in each pair, and asked to select which environmental representation they preferred. The hypothesized spatial characteristics were identified in practice based literature as those that may encourage usage of sitting areas: viewability, variety, homelikeness, and privacy. Most of the hypothesized features were preferred by participants, with the highest preference found for non-institutional furniture arrangements and naturalness, followed by increasing enclosure and variety of seating. Preference was less significant for domestic cues such as carpeted floors, divided light windows, and boundaries defined by different colored material or columns, possibly due to their physical impairments or preference for visual openness. Participants' level of mobility assistance was significantly related to their preference for some features, such as seating with people-watching capability, and carpeted floors. The findings have implications for facility architects and administrators engaged in resident-oriented spatial planning.
assisted living facilities;spatial features;sitting areas;social interactions
- AAHSA, AHSA, ALFA, NCAL & NIC (2009). 2009 overview of assisted living.
- AARP Public Policy Institute (2010). Assisted living and residential care in the states in 2010. http://www.ahcancal.org/ncal/resources/Documents/residential-care-insight-on-the-issues-july-2012-AARPppi-ltc.pdf
- Applegate, M. & Morse, J. M. (1994). Personal privacy and interactional patterns in a nursing home. Journal of Aging Studies, 8(4), 413-434. https://doi.org/10.1016/0890-4065(94)90012-4
- Bernstein, P. L., Friedmann, E., Malaspina, A. (2000). Animal-assisted therapy enhances resident social interaction and initiation in long-term care facilities. Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People & Animals, 13(4), 213-224. https://doi.org/10.2752/089279300786999743
- Brandi, J. M., Kelley-Gillespie, N., Liese, L. H. & Farley, O. W. (2003). Nursing home vs. assisted living: The environmental effect on quality of life. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 18(1), 73-88. https://doi.org/10.1300/J081v18n01_05
- Brawley, E. C. (2006). Design innovations for aging and Alzheimer's. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Brummett, W. J. (1997). The essence of home: Design solutions for assisted living housing. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
- Cohen, U. & Weisman, G. D. (1991). Holding on to home: Designing environments for people with dementia. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Davis, S., Byers, S., Nay, R. & Koch, S. (2009). Guiding design of dementia friendly environments in residential care settings: Considering the living experiences. Dementia, 8(2), 186-203.
- Dupuis-Blanchard, S. Neufeld, A. & Strang, V. R. (2009). The significance of social engagement in relocated older adults. Qualitative Health Research, 19(9), 1186-1195. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732309343956
- Eales, J., Keating N. & Damsma, A. (2001). Seniors' experiences of client-centered residential care. Aging and Society, 21, 279-296. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X01008236
- Gaugler, J. E. & Kane, R. A. (2005). Activity outcomes for assisted living residents compared to nursing home residents. Activities, Adaptation and Aging, 29(3), 33-58. https://doi.org/10.1300/J016v29n03_03
- Hung, L. & Chaudhury, H. (2011). Exploring personhood in dining experiences of residents with dementia in long-term care facilities. Journal of Aging Studies, 25, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2010.08.007
- Hutchings, D., Wells, J. J. L., O'Brien, K., Wells, C., Alteen, A. M. & Cake, L. J. (2011). From institution to home: Family perspective on a unique relocation process. Canadian Journal on Aging, 30(2), 223-232. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0714980811000043
- Isaac, V. M., Stewart, R., Artero, S., Ancelin, M. L. & Ritchie, K. (2009). Social activity and improvement in depressive symptoms in older people: A prospective community cohort study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(8), 688-696. https://doi.org/10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181a88441
- Jacobsen, J. K. S. (2007). Use of landscape perception methods in tourism studies: A review of photobased research approaches. Tourism Geographies, 9(3), 234-253. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616680701422871
- Kane, R. A. (2001). Long-Term care and a good quality of life: Bringing them closer together. The Gerontologist, 41(3), 293-304. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/41.3.293
- Lum, T. Y., Kane, R. A., Cutler, L. J. & Yu, T. C. (2008). Effects of green house nursing homes on residents' families. Health Care Financing Review, 30(2), 35-51.
- Marsden, J. P. (2005). Humanistic design of assisted living. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press
- McAllister, C. L. & Silverman, M. A. (1999). Community formation and community roles among persons with Alzheimer's disease: A comparative study of experiences in a residential Alzheimer's facility and a traditional nursing home. Qualitative Health Research, 9(1), 65-85. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973299129121703
- Moore, G., Croxford, B., Adams M., Refaee, M. Cox, T. & Sharples, S. (2008). The photo-survey research method: Capturing life in the city. Visual Studies, 23(1), 50-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/14725860801908536
- Morgan, D. G. & Stewart, N. J. (1999). The physical environment of special care units: Needs of residents with dementia from the perspective of staff and family caregivers. Qualitative Health Research, 9(1), 105-118. https://doi.org/10.1177/104973299129121721
- Nasar, J. L. (1981). Visual preferences of elderly public housing residents: Residential street scenes, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 1, 303-313 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-4944(81)80028-X
- Neumeyer, R. R. (2009). Effects of interior spatial features on use and perception of space: An exploratory study in two assisted living facilities in Oregon. Master's thesis, Oregon State University.
- Nord, C. (2011). Individual care and personal space in assisted living in Sweden. Health & Place, 17, 50-56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.02.008
- Pinet, C. (1995). Nursing home design: Characteristics of social spaces and social behavior of residents. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
- Pinto-Correia, T., Barroso, F., Surova, D. & Menezes, H. (2011). The fuzziness of Montado landscapes: Progress in assessing user preferences through photo-based surveys. Agroforest Syst, 82, 209-224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-010-9347-2
- Regnier, V. (2002). Design for assisted living: Guidelines for housing the physically and mentally frail. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
- Robinson, J., Shugrue, N., Reed, I., Thompson, N., Smith, P. & Gruman, C. (2011). Community based versus institutional supportive housing: Perceived quality of care, quality of life, emotional well-being, and social interaction. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 30(3), 275-303. https://doi.org/10.1177/0733464810369810
- Rodiek, S. D. & Fried, J. T. (2005). Access to the outdoors: Using photographic comparison to assess preferences of assisted living residents. Landscape and Urban Planning, 73, 184-199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2004.11.006
- Roth, E. G. & Eckert, J. K. (2011). The vernacular landscape of assisted living. Journal of Aging Studies, 25, 215-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2011.03.005
- Schwarz, B., Chaudhury, H. & Tofle, R. B. (2004). Effect of design interventions on a dementia care setting. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 19(3), 172-176. https://doi.org/10.1177/153331750401900304
- Sugihara, S. & Evans, G. W. (2000). Place attachment and social support at continuing care retirement communities. Environment and Behavior, 32(3), 400-409. https://doi.org/10.1177/00139160021972586
- Texas Department of Aging and Disability Services (2011). Facility directory: Assisted living. http://www.dads.state.tx.us/providers/ALF/al.pdf
- U.S. Census Bureau (2010). The older population in the United State: 2010 to 2050. http://www.census.gov/ prod/2010pubs/p25-1138.pdf
- U.S. Census Bureau (2011). The older population: 2010. http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-09.pdf
- Yang, H. & Stark, S. L. (2010). The role of environmental features in social engagement among residents living in assisted living facilities. Journal of Housing For the Elderly, 24, 28-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/02763890903547062
- Verbeek, H., Rossum, E. V., Zwakhalen, S. M. G., Kempen G. I. J. M. & Hamers, J. P. H. (2009). Small, homelike care environments for older people with dementia: a literature review. International Psychogeriatrics, 21(2), 252-264. https://doi.org/10.1017/S104161020800820X
- Zavotka, S. L. & Teaford, M. H. (1997). The design of shared social spaces in assisted living residences for older adults. Journal of Interior Design, 23(2), 2-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1668.1997.tb00245.x
- Using visual simulation to evaluate restorative qualities of access to nature in hospital staff break areas vol.148, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.12.012
Supported by : Kunsan National University's