DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Analysis of Korean Solar Salt and Flower of Salt

한국산 꽃소금과 천일염의 이화학적 특성 및 미생물 분석

  • 이혜미 (목포대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 이우경 (대상주식회사 중앙연구소 식품연구실) ;
  • 진중현 (대상주식회사 중앙연구소 식품연구실) ;
  • 김인철 (목포대학교 식품공학과)
  • Received : 2013.03.04
  • Accepted : 2013.04.02
  • Published : 2013.07.31

Abstract

The present study was conducted to ensure the diversity of domestic solar salt by analyzing the composition and microbiological characteristics of solar salt (from Docho island: DS) and the flower of salt produced in different Korean salt flats (Sinui island: SF, Bigum island: BF, and Docho island: DF). The analyses showed that the moisture content of the three types of flower of salt and solar salt ranged from 10.54~13.82% and NaCl content ranged from 78.81~84.61%. The mineral content of those salts ranged from 3.57~5.51%. The content of insoluble matter in these salts was $0.01{\pm}0.00{\sim}0.05{\pm}0.00%$. The sand content of these salts was $0.01{\pm}0.01{\sim}0.03{\pm}0.01%$. By Hunter's color value analysis, the color of the flower of salt was brighter and whiter than solar salt. The salinity of the flower of salt was a little higher than solar salt as well. The magnesium and potassium ion content of DF was $9,886.72{\pm}104.78mg/kg$ and $2,975.23{\pm}79.73mg/kg$, respectively, which was lower than the content in SF, BF, and DS. The heavy metal content of all salts was acceptable under the Korean Food Sanitation Law. The flower of salt was confirmed to be sweeter and preferable to solar salt. More than 80% of the solar salt crystals were 2~3 mm in size, whereas crystals from the flower of salt were 0.5~2 mm in size. The bacterial diversity of DF and DS were investigated by culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods. The number of cultured bacteria in flower of salt was approximately three times more than solar salt. By DGGE analysis, major microbes of DF were Maritimibacter sp., Cupriavidus sp., and unculturable bacteria, and those of DS were Cupriavidus sp., Dunalidella salina and unculturable bacteria. The results of DGGE analysis showed that major microorganisms in solar salts were composed of unidentified and unculturable bacteria and only a few microorganisms were culturable.

한국산 꽃소금의 특성을 알아보기 위하여 국내에서 생산된 꽃소금 3종과 천일염 1종의 이화학적 및 미생물 분석을 실시하였다. 수분함량은 $10.54{\pm}0.10{\sim}13.82{\pm}0.12%$, 나머지 조단백, 조지방, 조섬유는 거의 존재하지 않았다. NaCl은 신의도산 꽃소금이 $78.81{\pm}0.28%$, 비금산 꽃소금이 $81.67{\pm}0.34%$, 도초산 꽃소금 $84.61{\pm}0.21%$, 도초산 천일염이 $80.82{\pm}0.17%$로 나타났다. 불용분, 사분은 각각 0.01~0.05%, 0.01~0.03%로 낮게 검출되었다. 미네랄 분석은 도초산 꽃소금에서 K과 Mg 함량이 2,975.23 mg/kg, 9,886.72 mg/kg으로 비교적 낮게 나타났다. Ca은 도초산 소금 2종이 945.53 mg/kg, 942.43 mg/kg으로 낮은 함량을 보였다. 중금속 As, Cd, Pb, Hg은 모두 규격 이하로 검출되었다. 소금결정을 관찰한 결과로 천일염과 꽃소금 모두 핵이 중복되어 겹으로 적층된 것을 확인하였으며 크기는 비금산 꽃소금이 $0.067{\times}0.067mm$로 가장 작고 도초산 천일염이 $0.112{\times}0.124mm$로 꽃소금에 비해 크게 나타났다. 소금의 색도는 꽃소금의 L값이 천일염에 비해 높아 밝게 확인되었다. 관능검사 결과로 짠맛은 NaCl 함량과 유사하며, 쓴맛은 K과 Mg 함량이 적은 도초산 꽃소금이 낮게 나타났다. 천일염에 비해 꽃소금의 단맛과 기호도가 더 높은 것으로 확인되었다. 호염균 동정 결과 19종 모두 Firmicutes로 꽃소금에서 Marinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Bacillus 속이 12종으로 확인되며, 천일염은 Planococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus 속 3종으로 검출되었다. DGGE 실험 결과로 도초산 꽃소금에서 16개의 band와 도초산 천일염에서 15개의 band를 확인하였다. 동정 결과 도초산 꽃소금에서 Cupriavidus sp. ATHA3(14.43%), Cupriavidus sp. TSA5(10.41%), Maritimibacter sp. YCSD61-2(8.13%), uncultured bacteria(68%)로 확인되었고, 도초산 천일염에서는 Dunaliella salina(4.76%), Cupriavidus sp. ATHA3(15.80%), uncultured Mycoplasmataceae bacteria(51.72%), uncultured bacteria(27%)로 확인되었다.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 농림수산식품부

References

  1. Korea food service news. 2012. The diary of food service& solar salt in 2012. Seoul, Korea. p 24-31.
  2. Kang JH. 2006. Salt and health. Korea Forum 6, Korea Forum Corporation, Seoul, Korea. p 200-203.
  3. KFDA. 2011. Korea food and drug administration. Food standards codex I. Korean Food Industry Association, Seoul, Korea. p 200-203.
  4. Choi JH. 2011. Korean solar salt story for safe luxury salts. Sigmabooks, Seoul, Korea. p 75-76.
  5. Shin TS, Park CK, Lee SH, Han KH. 2005. Effects of age on chemical composition in sun-dried salts. Korean J Food Sci Technol 37: 312-317.
  6. Jin YX, Je JH, Lee YH, Kim JH, Cho YS, Kim SY. 2011. Comparison of the mineral contents of sun-dried salt depending on wet digestion and dissolution. Korean J Food Preserv 18: 993-997. https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.6.993
  7. Park JW, Kim SJ, Kim SH, Kim BH, Kang SG, Nam SH, Jung ST. 2000. Determination of mineral and heavy metal contents of various salts. Korean J Food Sci Technol 32:1442-1445.
  8. Chang JY, Kim IC, Chang HC. 2011. Effect of solar salt on the fermentation characteristics of Kimchi. Korean J Food Preserv 18: 256-265. https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.2.256
  9. Lee KD, Choi CR, Cho JY, Kim HL, Ham KS. 2008. Physicochemical and sensory properties of salt-fermented shrimp prepared with various salts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 53-59. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.1.53
  10. Chang M, Kim IC, Chang HC. 2010. Effect of solar salt on the quality characteristics of Doenjang. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39: 116-124. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.1.116
  11. Kim HL, Yoo YJ, Lee IS, Ko GH, Kim IC. 2012. Evaluation of heavy metal contents in mudflat solar salt, salt water, and sea water in the nationwide salt pan. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41: 1014-1019. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.7.1014
  12. Na BJ, Ha SD. 2009. Effectiveness and safety of salt. Food Science and Industry 42(2): 60-73.
  13. Baati H, Guermazi S, Gharsallah N, Sghir A, Ammar E. 2010. Microbial community of salt crystals processed from Mediterranean seawater based on 16s rRNA analysis. Can J Microbial 56: 44-51. https://doi.org/10.1139/W09-102
  14. Oren A. 2008. Microbial life at high salt concentrations: phylogenetic and metabolic diversity. Saline Systems 4: 2. doi: 10.1186/1746-1448-4-2.
  15. Birbir M, Calli B, Mertoglu B, Bardavid RE, Oren A, Ogmen MN, Ogan A. 2007. Extremely halophilic archaea from Tuz Lake, Turkey, and the adjacent Kaldirim and Kayacik salterns. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23: 309-316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-006-9223-4
  16. KFDA. 2011. Korea food and drug administration. Food standards codex II. Korean Food Industry Association, Seoul, Korea. p 3-33.
  17. AOAC. 1980. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA. Vol 11, p 31.
  18. Lee KD, Park JW, Choi CR, Song HW, Yun SK, Yang HC, Ham KS. 2007. Salinity and heavy metal contents of solar salts produced in Jeollanamdo province of Korea. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36: 753-758. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.6.753
  19. Ha JO, Park KY. 1998. Comparison of mineral contents and external structure of various salts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 27: 413-418.
  20. Na JM, Kang MS, Kim JH, Jin YX, Je JH, Kim JB, Cho YS, Kim JH, Kim SY. 2011. Distribution and identification of halophilic bacteria in solar salts produced during entire manufacturing process. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol 39:133-139.
  21. Yoon JH, Kim IG, Schumann P, Oh TK, Park YH. 2004. Marinibacillus campisalis sp. nov., a moderate halophile isolated from a marine solar saltern in Korea, with emended description of the genus Marinibacillus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54: 1317-1321. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.02779-0
  22. SubhoshChandra M, Roy N, Lee YS, Park IH, Zhou Y, Kim KK, Choi YL. 2008. Production, purification and characterization of a thermostable ${\beta}$-mannanase from Paenibacillus xylanilyticus DZ3. 2008 International Symposium and Annual Meeting of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry. Busan, Korea. p 208.
  23. Kocur M, Zdena P, Hodgkiss W, Martinec T. 1970. The taxonomic status of the genus Planococcus migula 1894. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 20: 241-248.
  24. Yoon JH, Kang SJ, Lee SY, Oh KH, Oh TK. 2010. Planococcus salinarum sp. nov., isolated from a marine solar saltern, and emended description of the genus Planococcus. Int J Syst Evol Microbial 60: 754-758. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.013136-0
  25. Lee MJ, Cho KH, Han ES, Lee JH. 2010. Bacterial diversity in the initial fermentation stage of Korean and Chinese kimchi. Kor J Microbiol Biotechnol 38: 207-215.
  26. Yoon JH, Kim IG, Kang KH, Oh TK, Park YH. 2003. Bacillus marisflavi sp. nov. and Bacillus aquimaris sp. nov., isolated from sea water of a tidal flat of the Yellow Sea in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbial 53: 1297-1303. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.02365-0
  27. Shivaji S, Chaturvedi P, Begum Z, Pindi PK, Manorama R, Padmanaban DA, Shouche YS, Pawar S, Vaishampayan P, Dutt CB, Datta GN, Manchanda RK, Rao UR, Bhargava PM, Narlikar JV. 2009. Janibacter hoylei sp. nov., Bacillus isronensis sp. nov. and Bacillus aryabhattai sp. nov., isolated from cryotubes used for collecting air from the upper atmosphere. Int J Syst Evol Microbial 59: 2977-2986. https://doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.002527-0
  28. Shon MY, Seo KI, Park SK, Cho YS, Sung NJ. 2001. Some biological activities and isoflavone content of Chungkugjang prepared with black beans and Bacillus strains. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 30: 662-667.
  29. Hwang JS, Kim JY, Sung DI, Yi YS, Kim HB. 2012. Fermentation of black-soybean Chungkookjang using Bacillus licheniformis B1. Korean J Microbiol 48: 216-219. https://doi.org/10.7845/kjm.2012.033
  30. Muyzer G, de Waal EC, Uitterlinden AG. 1993. Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59: 659-700.
  31. Park JA, Heo GY, Lee JS, Oh YJ, Kim BY, Min TI, Kim CK, Ahn JS. 2003. Change of microbial communities in Kimchi fermentation at low temperature. Korean J Microbiol 39: 45-50.
  32. Lee JS, Heo GY, Lee JW, Oh YJ, Park JA, Park YH, Pyun YR, Ahn JS. 2005. Analysis of kimchi microflora using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Int J Food Microbiol 102: 143-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.12.010
  33. Kim TW, Lee JH, Park MH, Kim HY. 2009. Analysis of bacterial and fungal communities in Japanese- and Chinesefermented soybean pastes using nested PCR-DGGE. Curr Microbiol 60: 315-320.

Cited by

  1. Analysis of components according to different collecting time and production method in sun-dried salt vol.20, pp.6, 2013, https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2013.20.6.791
  2. Korean solar salts reduce obesity and alter its related markers in diet-induced obese mice vol.10, pp.6, 2016, https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2016.10.6.629
  3. Effect of Solar Salt on Kimchi Fermentation during Long-term Storage vol.46, pp.4, 2014, https://doi.org/10.9721/KJFST.2014.46.4.456
  4. Elemental Analysis of Sea, Rock, and Bamboo Salts by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission and Mass Spectrometry vol.49, pp.17, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2016.1158831
  5. Korean Solar Salt Ameliorates Colon Carcinogenesis in an AOM/DSS-Induced C57BL/6 Mouse Model vol.22, pp.2, 2013, https://doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2017.22.2.149
  6. Comprehensive analysis to determine the differences of solar salt produced in South Korea and China vol.29, pp.3, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-019-00664-y