Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Analysis of Korean Solar Salt and Flower of Salt

한국산 꽃소금과 천일염의 이화학적 특성 및 미생물 분석

  • 이혜미 (목포대학교 식품공학과) ;
  • 이우경 (대상주식회사 중앙연구소 식품연구실) ;
  • 진중현 (대상주식회사 중앙연구소 식품연구실) ;
  • 김인철 (목포대학교 식품공학과)
  • Received : 2013.03.04
  • Accepted : 2013.04.02
  • Published : 2013.07.31


The present study was conducted to ensure the diversity of domestic solar salt by analyzing the composition and microbiological characteristics of solar salt (from Docho island: DS) and the flower of salt produced in different Korean salt flats (Sinui island: SF, Bigum island: BF, and Docho island: DF). The analyses showed that the moisture content of the three types of flower of salt and solar salt ranged from 10.54~13.82% and NaCl content ranged from 78.81~84.61%. The mineral content of those salts ranged from 3.57~5.51%. The content of insoluble matter in these salts was $0.01{\pm}0.00{\sim}0.05{\pm}0.00%$. The sand content of these salts was $0.01{\pm}0.01{\sim}0.03{\pm}0.01%$. By Hunter's color value analysis, the color of the flower of salt was brighter and whiter than solar salt. The salinity of the flower of salt was a little higher than solar salt as well. The magnesium and potassium ion content of DF was $9,886.72{\pm}104.78mg/kg$ and $2,975.23{\pm}79.73mg/kg$, respectively, which was lower than the content in SF, BF, and DS. The heavy metal content of all salts was acceptable under the Korean Food Sanitation Law. The flower of salt was confirmed to be sweeter and preferable to solar salt. More than 80% of the solar salt crystals were 2~3 mm in size, whereas crystals from the flower of salt were 0.5~2 mm in size. The bacterial diversity of DF and DS were investigated by culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods. The number of cultured bacteria in flower of salt was approximately three times more than solar salt. By DGGE analysis, major microbes of DF were Maritimibacter sp., Cupriavidus sp., and unculturable bacteria, and those of DS were Cupriavidus sp., Dunalidella salina and unculturable bacteria. The results of DGGE analysis showed that major microorganisms in solar salts were composed of unidentified and unculturable bacteria and only a few microorganisms were culturable.

한국산 꽃소금의 특성을 알아보기 위하여 국내에서 생산된 꽃소금 3종과 천일염 1종의 이화학적 및 미생물 분석을 실시하였다. 수분함량은 $10.54{\pm}0.10{\sim}13.82{\pm}0.12%$, 나머지 조단백, 조지방, 조섬유는 거의 존재하지 않았다. NaCl은 신의도산 꽃소금이 $78.81{\pm}0.28%$, 비금산 꽃소금이 $81.67{\pm}0.34%$, 도초산 꽃소금 $84.61{\pm}0.21%$, 도초산 천일염이 $80.82{\pm}0.17%$로 나타났다. 불용분, 사분은 각각 0.01~0.05%, 0.01~0.03%로 낮게 검출되었다. 미네랄 분석은 도초산 꽃소금에서 K과 Mg 함량이 2,975.23 mg/kg, 9,886.72 mg/kg으로 비교적 낮게 나타났다. Ca은 도초산 소금 2종이 945.53 mg/kg, 942.43 mg/kg으로 낮은 함량을 보였다. 중금속 As, Cd, Pb, Hg은 모두 규격 이하로 검출되었다. 소금결정을 관찰한 결과로 천일염과 꽃소금 모두 핵이 중복되어 겹으로 적층된 것을 확인하였으며 크기는 비금산 꽃소금이 $0.067{\times}0.067mm$로 가장 작고 도초산 천일염이 $0.112{\times}0.124mm$로 꽃소금에 비해 크게 나타났다. 소금의 색도는 꽃소금의 L값이 천일염에 비해 높아 밝게 확인되었다. 관능검사 결과로 짠맛은 NaCl 함량과 유사하며, 쓴맛은 K과 Mg 함량이 적은 도초산 꽃소금이 낮게 나타났다. 천일염에 비해 꽃소금의 단맛과 기호도가 더 높은 것으로 확인되었다. 호염균 동정 결과 19종 모두 Firmicutes로 꽃소금에서 Marinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Bacillus 속이 12종으로 확인되며, 천일염은 Planococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus 속 3종으로 검출되었다. DGGE 실험 결과로 도초산 꽃소금에서 16개의 band와 도초산 천일염에서 15개의 band를 확인하였다. 동정 결과 도초산 꽃소금에서 Cupriavidus sp. ATHA3(14.43%), Cupriavidus sp. TSA5(10.41%), Maritimibacter sp. YCSD61-2(8.13%), uncultured bacteria(68%)로 확인되었고, 도초산 천일염에서는 Dunaliella salina(4.76%), Cupriavidus sp. ATHA3(15.80%), uncultured Mycoplasmataceae bacteria(51.72%), uncultured bacteria(27%)로 확인되었다.



Supported by : 농림수산식품부


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