DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Concentration of metallic elements in surface sediments at a waste disposal site in the Yellow Sea

황해 폐기물 투기해역(서해병) 표층 퇴적물의 금속원소 분포

  • Koh, Hyuk-Joon (Subtropical Fisheries Research Center, Southwest Sea Fisheries Research Institute, NFRDI) ;
  • Choi, Young-Chan (Dept. of Earth and Ocean Science, Jeju National University) ;
  • Park, Sung-Eun (Subtropical Fisheries Research Center, Southwest Sea Fisheries Research Institute, NFRDI) ;
  • Cha, Hyung-Kee (Subtropical Fisheries Research Center, Southwest Sea Fisheries Research Institute, NFRDI) ;
  • Chang, Dae-Soo (Southwest Sea Fisheries Research Institute, NFRDI) ;
  • Lee, Chung-Il (Department of Marine Bioscience, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Yoon, Han-Sam (Research Center for Ocean Industrial Development, Pukyong National Univ.)
  • 고혁준 (국립수산과학원 남서해수산연구소 아열대수산연구센터) ;
  • 최영찬 (제주대학교 지구해양과학과) ;
  • 박성은 (국립수산과학원 남서해수산연구소 아열대수산연구센터) ;
  • 차형기 (국립수산과학원 남서해수산연구소 아열대수산연구센터) ;
  • 장대수 (국립수산과학원 남서해수산연구소) ;
  • 이충일 (강릉원주대학교 해양자원육성학과) ;
  • 윤한삼 (부경대학교 해양산업개발연구소)
  • Received : 2012.10.04
  • Accepted : 2013.05.08
  • Published : 2013.07.31

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation of metallic elements and the control effect of marine pollution caused by ocean dumping in the sediments at a waste disposal area in the Yellow Sea. In July 2009, concentrations of organic matter and metallic elements (Al, Fe, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn) were measured in surface sediments at the site. The ignition loss (IL) in the surface sediments showed a mean value of 15.4%, about 1.5 times higher than the mean value of the sediments in the coastal areas of Korea. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) at some disposal sites exceeded 20 mg $O_2/g{\cdot}dry$, which signifies the initial concentration of marine sediment pollutants in Japan. The disposal sites contain higher concentrations of Cr, Cu and Zn than the sediments of bays and estuaries that might be contaminated. The magnitude of both metal enrichment factors (EF) and adverse biological effects suggest that pollution with Cr and Ni occurred due to the dumping of waste in the study area. In addition, the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) showed that the surface sediments were moderately contaminated. By the mid-2000s, when the amount of waste dumped at this site was the highest, the concentration of metallic elements was higher than ever recorded. On the other hand, in 2008-09, the need for environmental management was relatively low compare with the peak. As a result, the quality of marine sediment has been enhanced, considering the effect of waste reduction and natural dilution in the disposal area.

Keywords

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 아열대수산연구센터

References

  1. Adriano, D.C., 1986, Trace Elements in the Terrestrial Environment, Springer-Verlag, 533.
  2. Cho, Y. G., 1994, Distribution and origin of metallic elements in marine sediments around Korean peninsula, Ph. D. Dissertation, Seoul National University.
  3. Cho, Y. G., Lee, C. B., Park, Y. A., Kim, D. C., Kang, H. J., 1993, Geochemical characteristics of surface sediments in the easter part of the Yellow Sea and the Korean West Coast, The Kor. J. Quaternary Research, 7(1), 69-92.
  4. Cho, Y. G., Park, K. Y., 1998, Heavy metals in surface sediments of the Youngsan Estuary, west coast of Korea, J. Kor. Environ. Sci. Soc., 7(4), 549-557.
  5. Cho, Y. G., Ryu, S. O., Khu, Y. K., Kim, J. Y., 2001, Geochemical composition of surface sediments from the Saemangeum tidal flat, west coast of Korea, J. Kor. Soc. Oceanogr., 6, 27-34.
  6. Choi, K. Y., Kim, S. H., 2008, Heavy metal distributions in livestock sludges in Korea, 2008, Proceedings of the Korean Ocean Science and Technology Societies Conferences.
  7. Choi, M. S., Chun, J. H., Woo, H. J., Yi, H. I., 1999, Change of heavy metals and sediment facies in surface sediments of the Shihwa Lake, J. Kor. Environ. Sci. Soc., 8(5), 593-600.
  8. Choi, S. W., Oh, K. H., Youn, S. T., Kim, H. G., Koh, Y. K., 2010, Sedimentary environments and geochemistry characteristics of tidal flat sediments in semi-enclosed Cheonggye Bay, Korea. J. Kor. Island, 22, 175-187.
  9. Hong, G. H.(eds.), Ahn, Y. H., Lee, J. H., Chung, C. S.(eds.), Lee, H. J., Kim, S. K., Kim, Y. I., Park, J. K., Ahn, B. W., 1999, Suspended particulate matter in the Yellow Sea, In biogeochemical processes in the Bohai and Yellow Sea, Dongjin Publication Association, Seoul, 249-274.
  10. Hyun, S. M., Choi, J. W., Choi, J. S., Lee, T. H., 2003a, Surface sediment characteristics and benthic environments in the mouth of Jinhae Bay, Korea, J. Kor. Fish. Soc., 36(6), 700-707.
  11. Hyun, S. M., Choi, Y. C., 1997, Behavior of chemical elements and biological activity in seawater, Bull of the Mar. and Environ. Res. Ins., 21, 187-198.
  12. Hyun, S. M., Lee, T. H., Choi, J. S., Choi, D. L., Woo, H. J., 2003b, Geochemical characteristics and heavy metal pollutions in the surface sediments of Gwangyang and Yeosu Bay, south coast of Korea, J. of the Kor. Soc. Oceanogr., 8, 380-391.
  13. Hwang, D. W., Jin, H. G., Kim, S. S., Kim, J. D., Park, J. S., Kim, K. S., 2006, Distribution of organic matters and metalic elements in the surface sediments of Masan Habor, Korea, J. Kor. Fish. Soc., 39(2), 106-117.
  14. Izawa, H., 1993, Sampling of sediment, Water Sci. Technol., 16(2), 6-10.
  15. Jang, S. H., Park, G. S., Shin, S. K., Yeum, K. S., Lee, S. E., 2007, Prediction on the reduction effect of pollution according to analytical methods for Ocean Dumping Wastes, Proceedings of the Korean Ocean Science and Technology Societies Conferences.
  16. Kang, C. K., Lee, P. Y., Park, J. S., Kim, P. J., 1993, On the distribution of organic matter in the nearshore surface sediment of Korea, Bull. Korean Fish. Soc., 26, 557-566.
  17. KBS, 2005, http://news.kbs.co.kr/event/kbs_special_ 20051106.html.
  18. Kim, D. H., 2007, Study on the sediment quality in bottom water (I), 13(1), 93-102.
  19. Kim, J. G., You, S. J., Cho, E. I., Ahn, W. S., 2003a, Distribution characteristics of heavy metals for tidal flat sediments in the Saemankeum area, J. Kor. Fish. Soc., 36(1), 55-61. https://doi.org/10.5657/kfas.2003.36.1.055
  20. Kim, P. G., Park, M. E., Sung, K. Y., Lim, S. T., Oh, S. M., 2009a, Comparative study on distribution of heavy metals of the surface sediments in East/West Oceanic Dumping Areas, Econ., Environ. Geol., 42(2), 121-131.
  21. Kim, P. G., Park, M. E., Sung, K. Y., 2009b, Distribution of heavy metals in marine sediments at the ocean waste disposal site in the Yellow Sea, South Korea, Geosciences journal, 13(1), 15-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12303-009-0002-8
  22. Kim, P. S., 2003b, Study of sequential extraction for the evaluation of ecological risk in sea-dumping wastewater sludge, Master's Dissertation, Kyungnam University.
  23. Kim, S. H., Hong, G. H., Chung, C. S., Kim, Y. I., Jin, Y. H., 2001, Distribution of trace metals and organic carbon in the sediment of the waste disposal area in the Yellow Sea, 1991, Proceedings of the Korean Marine Environmental Engineering Conferences.
  24. Korea Coast Guard Research Institute, 2008, http://rnd.kcg. go.kr.
  25. Lee, B. G., Kim, S. W., Kim, Y. H., Hyun, C. G., Lee, H. S., Kim, K. J., 2006, The condition and management measure of marine disposal of wastes, Proceedings of the Kor. Mar. Environ. and Safety Conferences.
  26. Lee, J. H., Lee, J. S., Kim, B. S., Lee, C. B., koh, C. H., 1998, Characteristics of metal distribution in the sediment in Kyeonggi Bay, Korea, J. of the Korean Soc. Oceanogr., 3(3), 103-111.
  27. Lim, S. H., 2003, Utilization of Mineral Chelate and the Korean Hog Industry(III), Pigplus, 12(6), 77-79.
  28. Long, E. R., MacDonald, D. D., Smith, S. L., Calder, F. D., 1995, Incidence of adverse effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments, Environ Manage, 19(1), 81-97. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02472006
  29. Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, 2004, Monitoring for the wastes disposal sea areas : Seohae Byung (I).
  30. Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, 2005a, Development of management system for Ocean Disposal 2.
  31. Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, 2005b, Standard methods of marine environment in Korea.
  32. Ministry of Science and Technology, 2001, As assessment of environmental fate of contaminants in the Yellow Sea for Yellow Sea Science Program.
  33. Muller, G., 1979, Schwermetalle in den sedimenten des RheinseVeranderungen seitt, 1971, Umschau, 79, 778-783.
  34. Munoz-Barbosa, A., Gutierrez-Galindo, E. A., Daessle, L. W., Orozco-Borbon, M. V., Segovia-Zavala, J. A., 2012, Relationship between metal enrichments and a biological adverse effects index in sediments from Todos Santos Bay, northwest coast of Baja California, Mexico, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64, 405-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.11.023
  35. Ocean dumping management system, 2009, http://www. oceandumping.re.kr.
  36. Park, Y. C., Yang, H. S., Lee, P. Y., Kim, P. J., 1995, Environmental characteristics of the seawater and surface sediment in the vicinity of Pusan Habor Area in winter, J. Kor. Fish. Soc., 28(5), 577-588.
  37. Shin, 2008, A Study of Environmental Changes Based on Pollution Parameters in the Waste Disposal Area of Yellow Sea, Master's thesis, Inha University.
  38. Song, K. M., Lee, S. R., Lee, S., Ahn, A. H., 2007, Ecological Model Experiments of the Spring Bloom at a Dumping Site in the Yellow Sea, Ocean and Polar Research, 29(3), 217-231. https://doi.org/10.4217/OPR.2007.29.3.217
  39. Taylor, S. R., McLennan, S. M., 1995, The continental crust, Rev Geophys, 33, 241-265. https://doi.org/10.1029/95RG00262
  40. Yoon, Y. H., 2000, A study on the Distribution characteristic of organic matters on the surface sediments and its origin in Keogeum-sudo, Southern part of Korean peninsula, J. Kor. Environ. Sci. Soc., 9(2), 137-144.
  41. Yoon, Y. H., 2003, Spatio-temporal distribution of organic matters in surface sediments and its origin Deukryang Bay, Korea, J. Kor. Environ. Sci. Soc., 12(7), 735-744. https://doi.org/10.5322/JES.2003.12.7.735
  42. Youn, J. S., Koh, Y. Y., Lee, H. J., 2001, Characteristics of Metallic Elements Distribution in Surface Sediments of the Central Yellow Sea, Bulletin of the Marine and Environmental Research Institute, 25, 1-10.
  43. Youn, S. T., Koh, Y. G., Ryu, S. O., 1999, Distribution characteristics of surface sediments and metal elements in Hampyong Bay, the Southwestern Coast of Korea, J. Kor. Environ. Sci. Soc., 8(6), 677-684.
  44. Zhang, J., Liu, C. L., 2002, Riverine composition and estuarine geochemistry of particulate metals in China-weathering features, anthropogenic impact and chemical fluxes, Estuarine, Coast Shelf Sci., 54(6), 1051-1070.