Effects of Probiotic Additions to Feed and Manure on Temperature, Humidity, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Hanwoo Manure during Summer - A Field Study

  • Received : 2013.09.05
  • Accepted : 2013.09.24
  • Published : 2013.09.30


The effects of probiotic additions to feed and manure on temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) emissions in Hanwoo manure during summer (4 weeks) were evaluated. Fifteen Hanwoo (24-mo-old, $580{\pm}20kg$) were housed in individual pens ($5{\times}8m$) and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5 cattle per treatment). Hanwoo were fed experimental rations as follows: control (10 kg roughage + 2 kg concentrate); T1 (10 kg roughage + 2 kg concentrate, 2% probiotics on as-fed basis); and T2 (10 kg roughage + 2 kg concentrate, 2% probiotics on as-fed basis + 7 kg probiotics as top-dressing on the surface of Hanwoo manure). In comparison to the control, the addition of probiotics to feed or feed and manure had an effect (P < 0.05) on temperature and humidity over the 4 weeks, except for humidity at 0 weeks. The only significant difference (P < 0.05) observed in $CO_2$ emission was among all treatments at 3 and 4 weeks (but not at 0 through 2 weeks). These results indicated that use of probiotics as feed and manure additives did not have a significant effect on environmental parameters.


Probiotics;Temperature;Humidity;Carbon dioxide emission;Feed;Hanwoo manure


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