DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Immunohistochemical localization of galectin-3 in the brain with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (DA strain) infection

  • Shin, Taekyun (Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeju National University) ;
  • Carrillo-Salinas, Francisco J. (Department of Functional and Systems Neurobiology, Neuroimmunology Group, Instituto Cajal, CSIC) ;
  • Martinez, Ana Feliu (Department of Functional and Systems Neurobiology, Neuroimmunology Group, Instituto Cajal, CSIC) ;
  • Mecha, Miriam (Department of Functional and Systems Neurobiology, Neuroimmunology Group, Instituto Cajal, CSIC) ;
  • Guaza, Carmen (Department of Functional and Systems Neurobiology, Neuroimmunology Group, Instituto Cajal, CSIC)
  • Received : 2013.05.16
  • Accepted : 2013.07.15
  • Published : 2013.09.30

Abstract

Galectin-3 is a ${\beta}$-galactoside-binding lectin that plays a role in neuroinflammation through cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. In the present study, regulation of galectin-3 was examined in the brain of mice infected with the Daniel strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) at days 7 and 81 post-infection by immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry revealed that galectin-3 was mainly localized in ionized calcium-binding adapter 1-positive macrophages/activated microglia, but not in Iba-1-positive ramified microglia. Galectin-3 was also weakly detected in some astrocytes in the same encephalitic lesions, but not in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Collectively, the present findings suggest that galectin-3, mainly produced by activated microglia/macrophages, may be involved in the pathogenesis of virus induced acute inflammation in the early stage as well as the chronic demyelinating lesions in Daniel strain of TMEV induced demyelination model.

References

  1. Almkvist J, Karlsson A. Galectins as inflammatory mediators. Glycoconj J 2004, 19, 575-581.
  2. Arévalo-Martín Á, Vela JM, Molina-Holgado E, Borrell J, Guaza C. Therapeutic action of cannabinoids in a murine model of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci 2003, 23, 2511-2516.
  3. Comte I, Kim Y, Young CC, van der Harg JM, Hockberger P, Bolam PJ, Poirier F, Szele FG. Galectin-3 maintains cell motility from the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb. J Cell Sci 2011, 124, 2438-2447. https://doi.org/10.1242/jcs.079954
  4. Correa F, Hernangomez-Herrero M, Mestre L, Loria F, Docagne F, Guaza C. The endocannabinoid anandamide downregulates IL-23 and IL-12 subunits in a viral model of multiple sclerosis: evidence for a cross-talk between IL- 12p70/IL-23 axis and IL-10 in microglial cells. Brain Behav Immun 2011, 25, 736-749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2011.01.020
  5. Dal Canto MC, Lipton HL. Multiple sclerosis. Animal model: Theiler's virus infection in mice. Am J Pathol 1977, 88, 497-500.
  6. De Giusti CJ, Alberdi L, Frik J, Ferrer MF, Scharrig E, Schattner M, Gomez RM. Galectin-3 is upregulated in activated glia during Junin virus-induced murine encephalitis. Neurosci Lett 2011, 501, 163-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2011.07.007
  7. Dumic J, Dabelic S, Flögel M. Galectin-3: an open-ended story. Biochim Biophys Acta 2006, 1760, 616-635. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2005.12.020
  8. Jiang HR, Al Rasebi Z, Mensah-Brown E, Shahin A, Xu D, Goodyear CS, Fukada SY, Liu FT, Liew FY, Lukic ML. Galectin-3 deficiency reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol 2009, 182, 1167-1173. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.182.2.1167
  9. Kim H, Lee J, Hyun JW, Park JW, Joo H, Shin T. Expression and immunohistochemical localization of galectin-3 in various mouse tissues. Cell Biol Int 2007, 31, 655-662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cellbi.2006.11.036
  10. King RD, Lubinski JM, Friedman HM. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection increases the carbohydrate binding activity and the secretion of cellular galectin-3. Arch Virol 2009, 154, 609-618. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-009-0351-7
  11. Kummerfeld M, Seehusen F, Klein S, Ulrich R, Kreutzer R, Gerhauser I, Herder V, Baumgärtner W, Beineke A. Periventricular demyelination and axonal pathology is associated with subependymal virus spread in a murine model for multiple sclerosis. Intervirology 2012 55, 401-416. https://doi.org/10.1159/000336563
  12. Lalancette-Hébert M, Swarup V, Beaulieu JM, Bohacek I, Abdelhamid E, Weng YC, Sato S, Kriz J. Galectin-3 is required for resident microglia activation and proliferation in response to ischemic injury. J Neurosci 2012, 32, 10383-10395. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1498-12.2012
  13. Mecha M, Carrillo-Salinas FJ, Mestre L, Feliú A, Guaza C. Viral models of multiple sclerosis: neurodegeneration and demyelination in mice infected with Theiler's virus. Prog Neurobiol 2013, 101-102, 46-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.11.003
  14. Mestre L, Docagne F, Correa F, Loria F, Hernangomez M, Borrell J, Guaza C. A cannabinoid agonist interferes with the progression of a chronic model of multiple sclerosis by downregulating adhesion molecules. Mol Cell Neurosci 2009, 40, 258-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2008.10.015
  15. Molina-Holgado E, Arevalo-Martin A, Vela JM, Guaza C. Theiler's virus encephalomyelitis infection as a model for multiple sclerosis: cytokines and pathogenic mechanisms. Rev Neurol 2002, 35, 973-978.
  16. Pajoohesh-Ganji A, Knoblach SM, Faden AI, Byrnes KR. Characterization of inflammatory gene expression and galectin-3 function after spinal cord injury in mice. Brain Res 2012, 1475, 96-105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.07.058
  17. Pasquini LA, Millet V, Hoyos HC, Giannoni JP, Croci DO, Marder M, Liu FT, Rabinovich GA, Pasquini JM. Galectin-3 drives oligodendrocyte differentiation to control myelin integrity and function. Cell Death Differ 2011, 18, 1746-1756. https://doi.org/10.1038/cdd.2011.40
  18. Reichert F, Rotshenker S. Deficient activation of microglia during optic nerve degeneration. J Neuroimmunol 1996, 70, 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-5728(96)00112-9
  19. Reichert F, Rotshenker S. Galectin-3/MAC-2 in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Exp Neurol 1999, 160, 508-514. https://doi.org/10.1006/exnr.1999.7229
  20. Rotshenker S. The role of Galectin-3/MAC-2 in the activation of the innate-immune function of phagocytosis in microglia in injury and disease. J Mol Neurosci 2009, 39, 99-103. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12031-009-9186-7
  21. Sato F, Tanaka H, Hasanovic F, Tsunoda I. Theiler's virus infection: pathophysiology of demyelination and neurodegeneration. Pathophysiology 2011, 18, 31-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pathophys.2010.04.011
  22. Shin T. The pleiotropic effects of galectin-3 in neuroinflammation: a review. Acta Histochem 2013, 115, 407-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2012.11.010
  23. Sundblad V, Croci DO, Rabinovich GA. Regulated expression of galectin-3, a multifunctional glycan-binding protein, in haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic tissues. Histol Histopathol 2011, 26, 247-265.
  24. Takasaki I, Taniguchi K, Komatsu F, Sasaki A, Andoh T, Nojima H, Shiraki K, Hsu DK, Liu FT, Kato I, Hiraga K, Kuraishi Y. Contribution of spinal galectin-3 to acute herpetic allodynia in mice. Pain 2012, 153, 585-592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2011.11.022