DEHP, DEP and DBP Exposure Analysis using Urinary Metabolites of Gyonggi Province University Students

  • Lee, JangWoo ;
  • Kho, YoungLim ;
  • Kim, SungKyoon ;
  • Choi, Kyungho ;
  • Hwang, SeongHee ;
  • Jeong, Jeeyeon ;
  • Kim, Pangyi
  • Received : 2013.03.04
  • Accepted : 2013.09.04
  • Published : 2013.10.31


Objectives: Phthalates are used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. As phthalate plasticizers are not chemically bound to the PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into indoor air and atmosphere, foodstuffs, other materials, etc. Therefore, humans are exposed through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposure over their entire lifetime, including during intrauterine development. In particular, university students have a great number of opportunities to contact products including phthalates during campus life (food packaging, body care products, cosmetic, lotions, aftershave, perfume etc.). The purpose of this study was to examine levels of phthalate exposure as undergraduate students begin to use pharmaceuticals and personal care products including phthalates. Methods: Phthalate metabolites, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-2- ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), {(mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP}, and mono-(2-ethlyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP} were examined. 80 urine samples collected from university students were analyzed using LC/MS/MS(API 4000, Applied Bioscience) with on-line enrichment and columnswitching techniques. This study was carried out at Y university located in Gyonggi Province from 2008 to 2011. Results: The detection limit of phthalate metabolites were 0.03 ng/mL for MEP, 0.11 ng/mL for MnBP, 0.08 ng/mL for MiBP, 0.93 ng/mL for MEHP, 0.19 ng/mL for MEOHP and 0.16ng/mL for MEHHP. MnBP showed the highest urinary levels (median: 31.6 ug/L, 24.8 ug/g creatinine (cr)). Concentrations were also high for MEHHP (median: 24.1 ug/L, 19.0 ug/g cr), followed by MEOHP (median: 22.8 ug/L, 17.9 ug/g cr). In individual cases, the maximum level reached up to 348 ug/L, and 291 ug/g cr, respectively. The urinary and creatinine adjusted levels of MEP were lower than those for DBP and DEHP metabolites, but were higher in 95th percentiles. As a result, the mean daily DEP intake value was 2.3 ${\mu}g/kg$ bw/day, 3.5 ${\mu}g/kg$ bw/day for DEHP and 4.9 ${\mu}g/kg$ bw/day for DBP. Conclusion: These students' phthalate exposure levels were below the international safe level set by the EU, but higher than the 2012 KFDA survey of the age group from 3 to 18.


Phthalates;university student;daily intake;urine;metabolites


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