- Volume 27 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Maintenance Crude Protein Requirement of Penned Female Korean Spotted Deer (Cervus nippon)
- Yang, S.Y. (RIBS, Animal Science, College of Medical Life Science, Konkuk University) ;
- Oh, Y.K. (National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
- Ahn, H.S. (Cowin Co. Ltd.) ;
- Kwak, W.S. (RIBS, Animal Science, College of Medical Life Science, Konkuk University)
- Received : 2013.08.05
- Accepted : 2013.10.09
- Published : 2014.01.01
This study was conducted to evaluate the protein requirement for maintenance of 2-year-old female Korean spotted deer. In the course of the experiment, each of three hand-reared female spotted deer was fed three diets that were iso-calorically formulated to contain low (approximately 7%), medium (12%), and high (17%) levels of crude protein (CP). Each of six trials included a 5-day transition, a 10-day preliminary, and a 7-day collection period. Dietary protein levels affected the apparent digestibility of CP (p<0.05) but not the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, or acid detergent fiber. All of the deer showed a positive CP balance on all of the diets. The maintenance CP requirement estimated by regression analysis was 4.17 g/kg metabolic body weight
Maintenance;Crude Protein Requirement;Blood Urea Nitrogen;Spotted Deer
Supported by : Konkuk University
- Smith, S. H., J. B. Holter, H. H. Hayes, and H. Silver. 1975. Protein requirement of white-tailed deer fawns. J. Wildl. Manage. 39:582-589. https://doi.org/10.2307/3800401
- Statistix7. 2000. User's Manual. Analytical Software, Tallahassee, FL, USA.
- Susmel, P., M. Spanghero, B. Stefanon, C. R. Mills, and E. Plazzotta. 1993. N losses, purine N derivatives excretion and intestinal digestible protein requirements of cows at maintenance. Livest. Prod. Sci. 36:213-222. https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-6226(93)90054-L
- Tomkins, N. W. and N. P. McMeniman. 2006. The effect of different levels of dietary crude protein on urea metabolism of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis). Small Rumin. Res. 66:187-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2005.09.016
- Wanapat, M., D. O. Ericksom, and W. D. Slanger. 1982. Nitrogen metabolism in sheep fed protein source of various solubilities with low quality roughages. J. Anim. Sci. 54:625-631.
- Kim, K. H., B. T. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, B. H. Kyung, and C. W. Kim. 1996. A comparison of oak browse (Quercus spp.) and silages of rye and maize with respect to voluntary intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and rumination time in penned Korean sika deer. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 61:351-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00932-9
- Kim, K. H., Y. G. Oh, S. C. Lee, K. J. Shin, S. W. Kang, Y. H. Moon, and M. K. Song. 2006. Crude protein requirements for maintenance of Hanwoo steers by protein balance trial. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Kor.) 48:533-540. https://doi.org/10.5187/JAST.2006.48.4.533
- Korean Ministry of Agriculture, Fishery, and Food (KMAFF). 2010. Notification No. 2010-29: Standard analytical method for feeds. Ministry of Agriculture, Fishery, and Food, Korea.
- Kwak, W. S., K. H. Kim, C. W. Kim, B. T. Jeon, and S. M. Lee. 1994. Deer farming in Korea: on-farm survey in Kyung-Kee and Chung-Buk provinces. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 7:347-355. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1994.347
- Luo, J., A. L. Goetsch, I. V. Nsahlai, T. Sahlu, C. L. Ferrell, F. N. Owens, M. L. Galyean, J. E. Moore, and Z. B. Johnson. 2004. Metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance and gain of growing goats. Small Rumin. Res. 53:309-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2004.04.003
- Maloiy, G. M., R. N. Kay, E. D. Coodall, and J. H. Topps. 1970. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism in sheep and red deer given large or small amounts of water and protein. Br. J. Nutr. 24:843-855. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19700087
- McEwan, E. H. and P. E. Whitehead. 1970. Seasonal changes in the energy and nitrogen intake in reindeer and caribou. Can. J. Zool. 48:905-913. https://doi.org/10.1139/z70-164
- Mould, E. D. and C. T. Robbins. 1981. Nitrogen metabolism in elk. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:323-334. https://doi.org/10.2307/3807915
- National Research Council (NRC). 1981. Nutrient requirements of goats: angora, dairy, and meat goats in temperate and tropical countries. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp. 47-61.
- National Research Council (NRC). 1985. Nutrient requirements of sheep. Sixth Revised Edition, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
- Robbins, C. T., R. L. Prior, N. Moen, and W. J. Visek. 1974. Nitrogen metabolism of white-tailed deer. J. Anim. Sci. 38:186-191.
- Seal, U. S., L. J. Verme, and J. J. Ozoga. 1978. Dietary protein and energy effects on deer fawn metabolic patterns. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:776-790. https://doi.org/10.2307/3800768
- Silva, A. M. A., A. G. da Silva Sobrinho, I. A. C. M. Trindade, K. T. Resende, and O. A. Bakke. 2003. Net requirements of protein and energy for maintenance of wool and hair lambs in a tropical region. Small Rumin. Res. 49:165-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00100-7
- Silva, J. F. C. 1996. Methodologies of nutritional requirement determination in sheep. In: Sheep Nutrition (Ed. A. G. Silva Sobrinho, A. M. V. Batista, E. R. Siqueira, and J. F. C. Silva). FUNEP, Jaboticabal, pp. 1-68.
- Silva Sobrinho, A. G. 1989. Body composition and protein requirement for goat in maintenance and milk production. Vicosa, MG: UFV, Doctorate Thesis, Animal Husbandry, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, p. 100.
- AOAC, 1990. Official methods of analysis (15th Ed.) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC, USA.
- Bunting, L. D., J. A. Boling, and C. T. Mackown. 1989. Effect of dietary protein level on nitrogen metabolism in the growing bovine: I. N recycling and intestinal protein supply in calves. J. Anim. Sci. 67:810-819.
- Cheva-Isarakul, B., B. Rengsirikul, and W. Liamkaeo. 1991. The minimum protein requirement for goats. In: Goat Production in the Asian Humid Tropics (Ed. S. Saithanoo and B. W. Norton), Proc. Int. Seminar, Hat Yai, Thailand, pp. 136-143.
- Coulombe, J. J. and L. Favreau. 1963. A new semi-micro method for colorimetric-determination of urea. Clin. Chem. 9:102-104.
- Cowan, R. L., E. W. Hartsook, J. B. Whelan, T. A. Long, and R. S. Wetzel. 1969. A cage for metabolism and radio-isotope studies with deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 33:204-208. https://doi.org/10.2307/3799673
- Das, A., M. Choubey, S. P. Gupta, M. Saini, and D. Swarup. 2010. Feed consumption, nutrient utilization, faecal pellet characteristics and serum metabolite profile of captive spotted deer (Axis axis) fed diets containing different roughages. Small Rumin. Res. 94:185-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2010.07.015
- Farid, M. F. A. 1995. Nutrient requirements of dromedary camels: protein and energy requirements for maintenance. J. Arid Environ. 30:207-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-1963(05)80072-2
- Freudenberger, D. O., C. J. Burns, K. Toyokawa, and T. N. Barry. 1994. Digestion and rumen metabolism of red clover and perennial ryegrass/white clover forages by red deer. J. Agric. Sci. 122:115-120. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600065850
- Garg, A. K. 1996. Nutritional trials in deer. Wild Inf. Bull. 2:6.
- Griffiths, T. W. 1984. Studies on the protein requirements of growing cattle: Effects of differing intakes of protein and energy on growth and nitrogen metabolism in young entire males. Br. J. Nutr. 51:133-143. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19840015
- Holter, J. B., H. H. Hayes, and S. H. Smith. 1979. Protein requirement of yearling white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:872-879. https://doi.org/10.2307/3808270