Effect of Natural Antimicrobial Extracts on Shelf-life Extension and Quality Improvement of the Flounder Sikhe

천연 항균 추출물의 첨가가 가자미 식해의 품질 및 저장성에 미치는 영향

  • Han, Ho Jun (Department of Food Processing and Distribution, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Kim, Deog Gi (Department of Food Processing and Distribution, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Han, Dae Won (East Coastal Marine Bioresources Research Center, Gangneung-Wonju National University) ;
  • Cho, Soon Yeong (Department of Food Processing and Distribution, Gangneung-Wonju National University)
  • 한호준 (강릉원주대학교 식품가공유통학과) ;
  • 김덕기 (강릉원주대학교 식품가공유통학과) ;
  • 한대원 (강릉원주대학교 동해안해양생물자원연구센터) ;
  • 조순영 (강릉원주대학교 식품가공유통학과)
  • Received : 2014.09.24
  • Accepted : 2014.11.12
  • Published : 2014.12.31


Flounder sikhe is one of the traditional Korean fermented foods. Because honey, fucoidan, propolis, aronia berry, and horseradish are well known to have natural antimicrobial properties, we investigated their antimicrobial effects on improving the quality of flounder sikhe. Ethanol extracts of propolis inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The extracts of aronia berry showed similar effects against Salmonella Typhimurium. We also assessed the total polyphenol and total flavonoid content and 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrythydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity in the extracts obtained from these natural materials. The contents of polyphenols and flavonoids were the highest in propolis, which also showed a high DPPH radical scavenging activity. Therefore, addition of propolis 0.5% to flounder sikhe showed optimal improvement, with a storage stability of 15 days at pH 5.39, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) content at 24.73 mg/100 g, and total bacterial count at $1.81{\times}10$ colony forming unit (CFU)/g.


Supported by : 농림수산식품부


  1. Ohgami K, Ilieva I, Shiratori K, Koyama Y, Jin XH, Yoshida K, Kase S, Kitaichi N, Suzuki Y, Tanaka T, Ohno S. Anti-inflammatory effect of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis. Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci. 46: 275-281 (2005)
  2. Cha YJ, Kim SJ, Jeong EJ, Kim H, Cho WJ, Yoo MY. Studies on taste compounds in Alaska Pollack sikhae during fementation. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 33: 1515-1521 (2004)
  3. Jo YJ. Study on the antioxidative and antimicrobial activities of wasabi (wasabia koreana, cruciferae) extracts. PhD thesis, Sungshin Women's University, Seoul, Korea (2008)
  4. Choi C, Lee HD, Choi HJ. A study on quality characteristics and establishment of fermentation process for traditional Kyungsando squid sikhae. Korean J. Dietary Culture 16: 118-127 (2001)
  5. Greenaway W, May J, Scaysbrook T, Whatley FR. Identification by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of 150 compounds in propolis. Z. Naturforsch. C 46: 111-121 (1991)
  6. Niedworok J, Jankowska B, Kowalczyk E, Charyk K, Kubat Z. Antiulcer activity of anthocyanin from Aronia melanocarpa Elliot. Herba Pol. 43: 222-227 (1997)
  7. Jankowski A, Niedworok J, Jankowska B. The influenceof aronia melanocarpa elliot on experimental diabetes in the rats. Herba Pol. 45: 345-353 (1999)
  8. Gasiorowski K, Brokus B, Tabaka H. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of four compounds exerting antimutagenic effects on human lymphocytes in vitro. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 5: 469-481 (2000)
  9. Park KN, Lee SH. Antimicrobial activity of pine needle extract and horseradish on the growth of vibrio. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 32: 185-190 (2003)
  10. Morimitsu Y, Hayashi K, Nakagawa Y, Fuii H, Horio F, Uchida K, Osawa T. Antiplatelet and anticancer isothiocyanates in Japanese domestic horseradish, wasabi. Mech. Ageing Dev. 12: 125-134 (2000)
  11. Kim SM, Back OD, Lee KT. The development of squid (Todarodes pacificus) sik-hae in the Kang-Nung district. 4. The effects of red pepper and grain contents on the properties of squid sikhae. Bull. Korean Fish. Soc. 27: 366-372 (1994)
  12. Moreno MI, Isla MI, Sampietro AR, Vattuone MA. Comparison of the free radical-scavenging activity of propolis from several regions of Argentina. J. Ethnopharmacol. 71: 109-114 (2000)
  13. Ahmad S, Kitchin KT, Cullen WR. Arsenic species that cause release of iron from ferritin and generation of activated oxygen. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 382: 195-202 (2000)
  14. Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200 (1958)
  15. Tomohisa. Preservation and measurement of processed meat products. Food Ind. 18: 105-107. (1975)
  16. Durkee AB. Polyphenols of the bran-aleurone fraction of buckwheat seed (Fagopyrum sagitatum, Gilib). J. Agr. Food Chem. 25: 286-287 (1997)
  17. Kalogeropoulos N, Konteles SJ, Troullidou E, Mourtzinos I, Karathanos VT. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties of propolis extracts from Greece and Cyprus. Food Chem. 116: 452-461 (2009)
  18. Park JH, Kim SM. Property changes of the salt-seasoned and fermented the broken roes of alaska pollock stuffed into cellulose casing. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34: 220-224 (2002)
  19. Song HN, Lee DG, Han SW, Yoon HK, Hwang IK. Quality changes of salted and semi-dried mackerel fillets by UV treatment during refrigerated storage. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 21: 662-668 (2005)