Freeze-thawing Conditions to Produce High Quality Bokbunja (Rubus occidentalis)

냉동유통 고품질 복분자 생산을 위한 냉해동 조건 연구

  • Received : 2014.10.23
  • Accepted : 2014.11.05
  • Published : 2014.12.31


To date, the quality and safety of frozen bokbunja have not been clearly assessed. To produce high-quality frozen bokbunja, the optimal freeze-thaw conditions need to be explored. The most popular cultivar (Rubus occidentalis) in Korea was selected for this study. To determine the changes in the quality of frozen R. occidentalis berries, different freezing temperatures were used. The berries were frozen at -20, -45, and $-70^{\circ}C$ immediately after harvest. The drip ratio, hardness, pH, sugar content, color, and anthocyanidin content of the frozen and thawed samples were analyzed. The drip ratio, sugar content, and hardness of the berries correlated significantly with the freezing temperatures. The color and pH of the berries were not significantly affected by the freezing conditions. Frozen leaks between cells reduced significantly with decreasing temperatures. The freeze-thawing process significantly reduced the total aerobic bacteria and inhibited the growth of yeast/mold in the berries to about 2 log scales.


Rubus occidentalis;bokbunja;freeze-thawing effect;drip loss;cryo-SEM


  1. Kwon KH, Cha WS, Kim DC, Shin HJ. A research and application of active ingredients in bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel). Korean J. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 21: 405-409 (2006)
  2. Kim JM, Shin MS. Characteristics of Rubus coreanus Miq. fruits at different ripening stages. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 43: 341-347 (2011)
  3. Kim YJ, Han SH, Jeon JY, Hwang MH, Im YJ, Chae SW, Kim MG. Method development of ellagic acid as marker compound for standardization of Gochang bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) as functional ingredient. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 41: 1554-1558 (2012)
  4. Sung KC. A study on the pharmaceutical & chemical characteristics and analysis of natural bokbunja extract. J. Korean Oil Chemists' Soc. 29: 402-411 (2012)
  5. Lee JH, Choi HR, Lee SJ, Lee MJ, Ko YJ, Kwon JW, Lee HK, Jeong JT, Lee TB. Blood pressure modulating effects of black raspberry extracts in vitro and in vivo. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 375-383 (2014)
  6. Choi HR, Lee JH, Lee SJ, Lee MJ, Jeong JT, Lee TB. Effects of unripe black raspberry water extract on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in mice. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 489-497 (2014)
  7. Lee SJ. Physico-chemical characteristics of black raspberry fruits (bokbunja) and wines in Korea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 45: 451-459 (2013)
  8. Lee SJ. Volatile analysis of commercial Korean black raspberry wines (bokbunjaju) using headspace solid-phase microextraction. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 425-431 (2014)
  9. Lee JS, Choi HY, Bae IH. Quality properties of yoghurt added with bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) wine. Korean J. Food Sci. An. 33: 806-816 (2013)
  10. Jin TY, Quan WR, Wang MH. Manufacturing characteristics and physicochemical component analysis of bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) jelly. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 39: 554-559 (2010)
  11. Jin TY, Heo SI, Lee WG, Lee IS, Wang MH. Manufacturing characteristics and physicochemical component analysis of bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel) jam. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37: 48-52 (2008)
  12. Chen L, Xin X, Zhang H, Yuan Q. Phytochemical properties and antioxidant capacities of commercial raspberry varieties. J. Funct. Foods 5: 508-515 (2013)
  13. Seo SH, Yoo SA, Kang BS, Son HS. Quality characteristics of Korean black raspberry bokbunja wines produced using different amounts of water in the fermentation process. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 33-38 (2014)
  14. Yu OK, Kim JE, Cha YS. The quality characteristics of jelly added with bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miquel). J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37: 792-797 (2008)
  15. Bobinaite R, Viskelis P, Venskutonis PR. Variation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ellagic acid and radical scavenging capacity in various raspberry (Rubus spp.) cultivars. Food Chem. 132: 1495-1501 (2012)
  16. Gu J, Ahn-Jarvis JH, Riedl KM, Schwartz SJ, Clinton SK, Vodovotz Y. Characterization of black raspberry functional food products for cancer prevention human clinical trials. J. Agr. Food Chem. 62: 3997-4006 (2013)
  17. Ku CS, Mun SP. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from seeds in fresh bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste. Bioresource Technol. 99: 4503-4509 (2008)
  18. Moon Y-S, Han J-H, Lee T-B, Kwon J-W, Choi C-H. Lipid-modulating effects of aqueous extract of Rubus occidentalis in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Am. J. Biosci. 2: 64-69 (2014)
  19. Choung MG, Lim JD. Antioxidant, anticancer and immune activation of anthocyanin fraction from Rubus coreanus Miquel fruits (bokbunja). Korean J. Medicinal Crop Sci. 20: 259-269 (2012)
  20. Cha HS, Youn AR, Park PJ, Choi HR, Kim BS. Physicochemical characteristics of Rubus coreanus Miquel during maturation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 39: 476-479 (2007)
  21. de Ancos B, Ibanez E, Reglero G, Cano MP. Frozen storage effects on anthocyanins and volatile compounds of raspberry fruit. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48: 873-879 (2000)
  22. Youn AR, Kwon KH, Kim BS, Noh BS, Cha HS. Quality changes in Rubus coreanus Miquel during frozen storage. Korean J. Food Preserv. 16: 618-622 (2009)
  23. Kim JW, Lee GH, Hur JH. Quality characteristics of citron jam made with frozen citron in Korea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 38: 197-201 (2006)
  24. Yoon AR, Kwon KH, Kim BS, Kim SH, Noh BS, Cha HS. Changes in quality of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) during storage at different temperatures. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 41: 251-257 (2009)
  25. Hunter KJ, Fletcher JM. The antioxidant activity and composition of fresh, frozen, jarred and canned vegetables. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. 3: 399-406 (2002)
  26. Kidmose U, Martens HJ. Changes in texture, microstructure and nutritional quality of carrot slices during blanching and freezing. J. Sci. Food Agr. 79: 1747-1753 (1999)<1747::AID-JSFA429>3.0.CO;2-B
  27. Chassagne-Berces S, Poirier C, Devaux M-F, Fonseca F, Lahaye M, Pigorini G, Girault C, Marin M, Guillon F. Changes in texture, cellular structure and cell wall composition in apple tissue as a result of freezing. Food Res. Int. 42: 788-797 (2009)
  28. Otero L, Solas MT, Sanz PD, de Elvira C, Carrasco JA. Contrasting effects of high-pressure-assisted freezing and conventional airfreezing on eggplant tissue microstructure. Z. Lebensm. Unters. F. A. 206: 338-342 (1998)
  29. Kim JY, Lee MY, Ji GE, Lee YS, Hwang KT. Production of aaminobutyric acid in black raspberry juice during fermentation by Lactobacillus brevis GABA100. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 130: 12-16 (2009)
  30. Cha HS, Lee MK, Hwang JB, Park MS, Park KM. Physicochemical characteristics of Rubus coreanus Miquel. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 30: 1021-1025 (2001)
  31. Paudel L, Wyzgoski FJ, Giusti MM, Johnson JL, Rinaldi PL, Scheerens JC, Chanon AM, Bomser JA, Miller AR, Hardy JK. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts. J. Agr. Food Chem. 62: 1989-1998 (2014)
  32. Lee J, Dossett M , Finn CE. Rubus fruit phenolic research: The good, the bad, and the confusing. Food Chem. 130: 785-796 (2012)

Cited by

  1. Characteristics of Lactic Acid Fermentation of Black Raspberry Juice Using the Lactobacillus plantarum GBL17 Strain vol.31, pp.6, 2015,
  2. Effects of Freezing Temperature on Quality of Mulberry vol.47, pp.2, 2015,


Supported by : 농촌진흥청