Spatiotemporal Variations and Possible Sources of Ambient PM10 from 2003 to 2012 in Luzhou, China

Ren, Dong;Li, Youping;Zhou, Hong;Yang, Xiaoxia;Li, Xiaoman;Pan, Xuejun;Huang, Bin

  • Received : 2014.06.24
  • Accepted : 2014.11.12
  • Published : 2014.12.31


Descriptive statistics methods were used to study the spatiotemporal variations and sources of ambient particulate matter ($PM_{10}$) in Luzhou, China. The analyzed datasets were collected from four national air quality monitoring stations: Jiushi (S1), Xiaoshi (S2), Zhongshan (S3), Lantian (S4) over the period of 2003-2012. This city was subjected serious $PM_{10}$ pollution, and the long-term annual average $PM_{10}$ concentrations varied from 76 to $136{\mu}g/m^3$. The maximum concentration was more than 3-fold of the annual average ($40{\mu}g/m^3$) issued by EPA-China for the ambient air quality. General temporal pattern was characterized by high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer, and general spatial gradient was in the reduction order of S2 > S4 > S3 > S1, which were both due to different particulate contributors and special meteorological conditions. The source apportionment indicated that vehicular emissions, road dusts, coal burning and chemical dusts were the major contributors of the identified $PM_{10}$ pollution, and the vehicular emissions and the road wear re-suspended particles dominated the heavy $PM_{10}$ pollution in recent years. Two other potential sources, agricultural and celebration activities could decrease the air quality in a short term. Finally, some corresponding suggestions and measures were provided to improve the air quality.


Luzhou;Particulate matter pollution;$PM_{10}$ sources;spatiotemporal variations


  1. Dockery DW, Pope CA. Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution. Annu. Rev. Public Health 1994;15:107-132.
  2. Schwartz MW, Peskind E, Raskind M, Boyko EJ, Porte D. Cerebrospinal fluid leptin levels: relationship to plasma levels and to adiposity in humans. Nat. Mad. 1996;2:589-593.
  3. Chen LC, Lippmann M. Effects of Metals within Ambient Air Particulate Matter (PM) on Human Health. Inhal. Toxicol. 2009;21:1-31.
  4. Satheesh SK, Krishna Moorthy K. Radiative effects of natural aerosols: A review. Atmos. Environ. 2005;39:2089-2110.
  5. Rosenfeld D, Lohmann U, Raga GB, et al. Flood or drought: how do aerosols affect precipitation? Science 2008;321:1309-1313.
  6. Wan JM, Lin M, Chan CY et al. Change of air quality and its impact on atmospheric visibility in central-western Pearl River Delta. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2011;172:339-351.
  7. Singh A, Dey S. Influence of aerosol composition on visibility in megacity Delhi. Atmos. Environ. 2012;62:367-373.
  8. Lee JH, Jeong JH, Lim JM. Toxic trace and earth crustal elements of ambient $PM_{2.5}$ using CCT-ICP-MS in an urban area of Korea. Environ. Eng. Res. 2013;18:3-8.
  9. Ohara T, Akimoto H, Kurokawa J, et al. An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980-2020. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2007;7:4419-4444.
  10. Bond TC, Streets DG, Yarber KF, Nelson SM, Woo JH, Klimont Z. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. J Geophys. Res. (1984-2012) 2004;109:D14.
  11. The World Bank. Cost of Pollution in China: Economic Estimates of Physical Damages (2007) [Internet]. Available from:
  12. Chan CY, Xu XD, Li YS, et al. Characteristics of vertical profiles and sources of $PM_{2.5},\;PM_{10}$ and carbonaceous species in Beijing. Atmos. Environ. 2005;39:5113-5124.
  13. Chu PC, Chen Y, Lu S, Li Z, Lu Y. Particulate air pollution in Lanzhou China. Environ. Int. 2008;34:698-713.
  14. Qu WJ, Arimoto R, Zhang XY, et al. Spatial distribution and interannual variation of surface $PM_{10}$ concentrations over eighty-six Chinese cities. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2010;10:5641-5662.
  15. Gehrig R, Buchmann B. Characterising seasonal variations and spatial distribution of ambient $PM_{10}\;and\;PM_{2.5}$ concentrations based on long-term Swiss monitoring data. Atmos. Environ. 2003;37:2571-2580.
  16. Rashki A, deW Rautenbach CJ, Eriksson PG, Kaskaoutis DG, Gupta P. Temporal changes of particulate concentration in the ambient air over the city of Zahedan, Iran. Air Qual. Atmos. Health 2013;6:123-135.
  17. Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China [Internet]. Available from:
  18. Sharma P, Kim KH, Ahn JW, et al. Ambient particulate matter (PM10) concentrations in major urban areas of Korea during 1996-2010. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 2014;5:161-169.
  19. Qin Y, Chan CK, Chan LY. Characteristics of chemical compositions of atmospheric aerosols in Hong Kong: spatial and seasonal distributions. Sci. Total Environ. 1997;206:25-37.
  20. Peng G, Wang X, Wu Z, et al. Characteristics of particulate matter pollution in the Pearl River Delta region, China: an observational-based analysis of two monitoring sites. J Environ. Monitor. 2011;13:1927-1934.
  21. Johansson C, Norman M, Gidhagen L. Spatial & temporal variations of $PM_{10}$ and particle number concentrations in urban air. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2007;127:477-487.
  22. Cao J, Shen Z, Chow JC, Qi G, Watson JG. Seasonal variations and sources of mass and chemical composition for $PM_{10}$ aerosol in Hangzhou, China. Particuology 2009;7:161-168.
  23. Wang J, Hu Z, Chen Y, Chen Z, Xu S. Contamination characteristics and possible sources of $PM_{10}\;and\;PM_{2.5}$ in different functional areas of Shanghai, China. Atmos. Environ. 2013;68:221-229.
  24. Unal YS, Toros H, Deniz A, Incecik S. Influence of meteorological factors and emission sources on spatial and temporal variations of $PM_{10}$ concentrations in Istanbul metropolitan area. Atmos. Environ. 2011;45:5504-5513.
  25. Singh R, Sharma BS. Composition, seasonal variation, and sources of $PM_{10}$ from world heritage site Taj Mahal, Agra. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2012;184:5945-5956.
  26. Fang M, Chan CK, Yao XH. Managing air quality in a rapidly developing nation: China. Atmos. Environ. 2009;43:79-86.
  27. Zhang CF, Wen M, Zeng JR, Zhang GL, Fang HP, Li Y. Modeling the impact of the viaduct on particles dispersion from vehicle exhaust in street canyons. Science China Technological Sciences. 2012;55:48-55.
  28. Kebria DY, Darvishi G, Haghighi F. An investigation on correlation between traffic and climate variables with the amount of $SO_2$ and $NO_2$ pollutants and estimation of their emission using regression modelling analysis method (case study: Mazandaran-Iran). Int. J Environ. Pollut. 2013;52:192-205.
  29. Ketzel M, Wahlina P, Berkowicz R, Palmgren F. Particle and trace gas emission factors under urban driving conditions in Copenhagen based on street and roof-level observations. Atmos. Environ. 2003;37:2735-2749.
  30. Grivas G, Chaloulakou A, Samara C, Spyrellis N. Spatial and temporal variation of $PM_{10}$ mass concentrations within the greater area of Athens, Greece. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2004;158:357-371.
  31. Gertler A, Kuhns H, Abu-Allaban M, et al. A case study of the impact of winter road sand/salt and street sweeping on road dust re-entrainment. Atmos. Environ. 2006;40:5976-5985.
  32. Klimont Z, Amann M. European control strategy for fine particles: the potential role of agriculture. Landbauforschung Volkenrode 2002;235:29-35.
  33. Pattey E, Qiu G. Trends in primary particulate matter emissions from Canadian agriculture. J. Air. Waste Manage. 2012;62:737-747.


Supported by : National Natural Science Foundation of China