DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Sex Differences in the Association of Habitual Snoring with Metabolic Syndrome

성별에 따른 습관성 코골이와 대사증후군 요소의 관련성

  • 김성준 (인제대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실)
  • Received : 2013.10.28
  • Accepted : 2014.01.03
  • Published : 2014.01.28

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the association between habitual snoring and metabolic syndrome in the Korean population and to evaluate it's possible gender variations. The study subjects were 2,007 volunteers aged 40-69 years who participated in regular health check-ups(male:434, female:1,573) from May 2012 to December 2012. Standard interviews, anthropometrics and biochemical studies were conducted. Habitual snoring was defined as snoring more than 4 days per week. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our sampling pool was 17.4% (male: 20.7%, female: 16.5%), and this increased with age. After adjusting for age, smoke and alcohol consumption, sleep duration, regular exercise, the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome and it's components were increased significantly by habitual snoring. HDL-cholesterol, blood sugar, waist size were significantly higher in women, but not significantly higher in men.

Keywords

Snoring;Metabolic Syndrome;Sexual Differences

References

  1. K. Spiegel, R. Leproult, and E. Van Cauter, "Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function," Lancet, Vol.354, pp.1435-1439, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01376-8
  2. G. M. Reaven, "Role of insulin resistance in human disease," Diabetes, Vol.37, pp.1595-1607, 1998.
  3. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholestrol Education Program(NCEP) Expert Panel on Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III), J. of American Mediacl Association, Vol.285, pp.2486-2497, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.19.2486
  4. C. Zamarron, F. Gude, O. Otero, and J. R. Rodrigues-Suarz, "Snoring and myocardial infarction: a 4-year follow-up study," Respiratory Medicine, Vol.93, pp.108-112, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0954-6111(99)90299-8
  5. M. Koskenvuo, J. Kaprio, and M. Partinen, "Snoring as a risk factor for hypertension and angina pectoris," Lancet, Vol.1, pp.893-896, 1985.
  6. F. B. Hu, W. C. Willett, G. A. Colditz, A. Ascherio, F. E. Speizer, and B. Rosner, "Prospective Study of Snoring and Risk of Hypertension in Women," American J. of Epidemiology, Vol.150, No.8, pp.806-816, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010085
  7. W. K. Al-Delaimy, J. E. Manson, W. C. Willett, M. J. Stampfer, and F. B. Hu, "Snoring as a risk factor for type II diabetes mellitus: a prospective study," American J. of Epidemiology, Vol.155, No.5, pp.387-393, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/155.5.387
  8. S. Lee, H. S. Park, S. M. Kim, H. S. Kwon, D. Y. Kim, and D. J. Kiml, "Cut-off points of waist circumference for defining abdominal obesity in the Korean population," Korean J. of Obestrics, Vol.15, No.1, pp.1-9, 2006.
  9. J. S. Son, B. M. Cho, Y. W. Kim, C. H. Ghae, C. W. Kim, and J. H. Kim, "Sex Differences in Lifestyle Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults," Korean J. of Health Promotion, Vol.12, No.1, pp.13-21, 2012.
  10. R. Brouilette, D. Hanson, R. David, L. Klemkaet, S. Anna, and S. Fernbach, "A diagnostic approach to suspected obstructive sleep apnea in children," J. of Pediatrics, Vol.105, pp.10-14, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(84)80348-0
  11. M. Urschitz, A. Guenther, S. Eitner, M. Pilar, M. Schlaud, and O. Ipsiroglu, "Risk Factors and Natural History of Habitual Snoring," Chest, Vol.126, No.3, pp.790-800, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.126.3.790
  12. K. G. Alberti, R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy, P. Z. Zimmet, J. L. Cleeman, and K. A. Donatol, Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity, Circulation, Vol.120, No.16, pp.1640-1645, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644
  13. H. M. Lakka, D. E. Laaksonen, T. A. Lakka, L. K. Niskanen, E. Kumpusalo, and J. Tuomiehto, "The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men," J. of American Medical Association, Vol.288, pp.2709-216, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.21.2709
  14. Western Pacific Regional Office of the World Health Organization, The International Obesity Task Force, The Asia-Pacific perspective: redefining obesity and its treatment, 2000.
  15. S. M. Grundy, "Metabolic syndrome scientific statement by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, Vol.25, pp.2243-2244, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.0000189155.75833.c7
  16. http://www.idf.org
  17. Q. R. Huang, Z. Qin, S. Zhang, and C. M. Chow, "Clinical patterns of obstructive sleep apnea and its comorbid conditions: A data mining approach," J. of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol.4, No.6, pp.543-550, 2008.
  18. J. M. Parish, T. Adam, and L. Facchiano, "Relationship of metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea," J. of Clinical Sleep Medicine, Vol.3, No.5, pp.467-472, 2007.
  19. K. M. Choi, S. M. Kim, Y. E. Kim, and D. S. Choi, "Prevalence and cardiovascular diease risk of the metabolic syndrome using National Cholesterol Education Programe and International Diabetes Federation definitions in the Korean population," Metabolism Clinical and Experimental, Vol.56, pp.552-558, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2006.12.003
  20. H. M. Kim, D. J. Kim, I. H. Jung, C. Park, and J. Park, "Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Korean adults using the new International Diabetes Federation definition and the new abdominal obesity criteria for the Korean people," Diabetes Research Clinical Practice, Vol.77, pp.99-106, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2006.10.009
  21. M. C. Carr, "The emergence of the metabolic syndrome with menopause," J. of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol.88, No.6, pp.2404-2411, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2003-030242
  22. D. E. Laaksonen, L. Niskanen, K. Punnonen, K. Nyyssonen, T. P. Tuomainen, and V. P. Valkonen, "Testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin predict the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in middle-aged men," Diabetes Care, Vol.27, No.5, pp.1036-1041, 2004. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.5.1036
  23. H. J. Lee, H. S. Kwon, Y. M. Park, H. N. Chun, Y. H. Choi, and S. H. Ko, "Waist circumference as a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in Korean adult; evaluation from 5 different criteria of metabolic syndrome," J. of Korean Diabetes Association, Vol.29, No.1, pp.48-56, 2005.
  24. P. E. Peppard, T. Young, M. Palta, and J. Skatrud, "Prospective study of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension," New England J. of Medicine, Vol.342, pp.1378-1384, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200005113421901
  25. M. Roopa, M. Deepa, K. Indulekha, and V. Mohan, "Prevalence of Sleep Abnormalities and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome among Asian Indians: Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES - 67)," J. of Diabetes Scientic Technology, Vol.4, No.6, pp.1524-1531, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1177/193229681000400630
  26. N. Pannacciulli, F. P. Cantatore, A. Minenna, M. Bellacicco, R. Giorgino, and G. De Pergola, "C-reactive protein is independently associated with total body fat, central fat, and insulin resistance in adult women," International J. of Obestetrics Related Metabolic Disorder, Vol.25, No.10, pp.1416-1420, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801719
  27. G. N. Thomas, C. Q. Jiang, X. Q. Lao, M. Sarah, McGhee, W. S. Zhang, and M. Schooling, "Snoring and vascular risk factors and disease in a low-risk chinese population: the guangzhou biobank cohort study," SLEEP, Vol.29, No.7, pp.896-900, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/29.7.896
  28. C. Leineweber, G. Kecklund, T. AAkerstedt, I. Janszky, and K. Orth-Gomer, "Snoring and the metabolic syndrome in women," Sleep Medicine, Vol.4, pp.531-536, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1389-9457(03)00160-6

Cited by

  1. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors and Health Promotion Behavior in General Hospital Nurses vol.15, pp.6, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5392/JKCA.2015.15.06.314