- Volume 58 Issue 1
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The Formation Process of Nature-Study in U.S. and Its Implication for Science Education
미국 Nature-Study 형성 과정과 과학교육에의 시사점
- Received : 2013.11.13
- Accepted : 2013.12.18
- Published : 2014.02.20
This study purposes to historical approach the formation process of Nature-Study, and to re-evaluate its definition and direction at present. The idea of Nature-Study originated from Campanella, Ratke and Comenius, who emphasized real things. The idea developed through Object Lessons of Sheldon, the Natural History of Agassiz, and Progressivism of Parker. They acted as the main contributors who evolved the idea of Nature-Study and its core fields that involve: 'studying with real things' in Object Lessons which brought the methodical aspects to the idea, 'studying with nature' from Natural History that enhanced the content characteristics and 'learner-centered education' from Progressivism, which impacted the philosophical aspects. Straight (a fellow student of Agassiz) was a teacher for Sheldon Oswego normal school and Parker's Cook County normal school, who synthesized the fields together and paved the way for the formation of Nature-Study. Jackman of Cook Country normal school established Nature-Study as a school curriculum and Bailey and Comstock of Cornell University formed the American Nature-Study Society and as a result, Nature-Study started to gain popularity. However, many educators increasingly rejected Nature-Study as a unifying topic, and preferred the use of textbooks rather than firsthand experiences. This hindered the nature-study movement and it declined since the 1920s. But today, the Nature-study idea can play a huge role in developing science education, inclusive education centered nature, self-initiated retrieval, sympathy with nature and character building of students.
Nature-Study;Object Lessons;Natural History;Progressivism;Inclusive education
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