Measurement of 1,4-dioxane in surface water by headspace GC-MS

GC-MS에 의한 지표수에서 1,4-Dioxane의 측정

  • Hong, Seon-Haw (Geum River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Lee, Jun-Bae (Geum River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Lee, Soo-Hyung (Geum River Environment Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research) ;
  • Lim, Hyun-Hee (Department of Environmental Science, Kongju National University) ;
  • Shin, Ho-Sang (Department of Environmental Education, Kongju National University)
  • 홍선화 (국립환경과학원 금강물환경연구소) ;
  • 이준배 (국립환경과학원 금강물환경연구소) ;
  • 이수형 (국립환경과학원 금강물환경연구소) ;
  • 임현희 (공주대학교 환경과학과) ;
  • 신호상 (공주대학교 환경교육과)
  • Received : 2013.10.15
  • Accepted : 2014.01.20
  • Published : 2014.02.25


1,4-Dioxane was classified as a Group 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The compound was measured in surface water with a headspace gas chromatographic mass spectrometric detection. A 5 mL water sample was placed in a 10 mL headspace vial and saturated with NaCl, and the solution was spiked with 1,4-dioxane-d8 as an internal standard and sealed with a cap. Water samples were collected from twenty-two basins of Gum-River on June and September 2012, respectively. As a result, 1,4-dioxane was detected in the concentration range of $0.49-43.0{\mu}g/L$ (mean $2.0{\mu}g/L$) in the frequency of about 30% in surface water samples.


1,4-Dioxane;surface water;headspace extraction;gas chromatography-mass spectrometry


  1. G. G. Hawley and R. J. S. Lewis, Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, USA, 2001.
  2. K. S. Surprenant, Dioxane. In Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (p. 543), Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 2002.
  3. IARC, 1,4-Dioxane. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Lyon, France, 1999.
  4. Merck and C. Inc, The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Whitehouse Station, 2001.
  5. R. E. Black, F. J. Hurley and D. C. Havery, J AOAC, 84(3), 666-670 (2001).
  6. E. J. Calabrese and E.M. Kenyon. Air Toxics and Risk Assessment. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, 1991.
  7. United States Department of Health and Human Services' National Toxicology Program. Eleventh Report on Carcinogens. Accessed 2013-9-30.
  8. US EPA, EPA 749-F-95-010, OPPT Chemical Fact Sheets 1,4-Dioxane, Accessed 2013-9-30.
  9. WHO, Rolling Revision of the WHO Guidelines for drinking water quality, 1,4-dioxane in Drinking Water Summary Statement, 2000.
  10. USEPA, Method 5030, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA, 1986.
  11. USEPA, Method 5035, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA, 1996.
  12. USEPA, Method 8015C, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA, 2007.
  13. Y. M. Park, H. Pyo and S. J. Park, Ana.l Chim. Acta, 548, 109-115 (2005).
  14. W. M. Draper, J. S. Dhoot and J. W. Remoy, The Analyst, 125(8), 1403-1408 (2000).
  15. C. Isaacson, T. K. Mohr and J. A. Field, Environ. Sci. & Technol,. 40(23), 7305-7311 (2006).
  16. D. Song and S. Zhang, J. Chromatogr. A, 787, 283-287 (1997).
  17. M. Yano, T. Kawamoto and N. Makihata, Bunseki Kagaku, 54(9), 917-922 (2005).
  18. P. E. Grimmett and J. W. Munch, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 47(1), 31-39 (2009).
  19. USEPA, Method 8260B, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA, (1996).
  20. S. Nakamura and S. Daishima, Anal. Chim. Acta, 548, 79-85 (2005).
  21. R. E. Shirey and C. M. Linton, J. Chromatogr. Sci., 44(7), 444-450 (2006).
  22. S. Nakamura and S. Daishima, Japan analyst, 62(3), 215-222 (2013).
  23. S. S. H. Davarani, L. Masoomi and M. H. Banitaba, Chromatographia, 75(7/8), 371-377 (2012).
  24. H. S. Shin and H. H. Lim, Chromatographia, 73(11/12), 1233-1236 (2011).
  25. The Environmental Minister of Korea, Drinking Water guideline, 2012.
  26. USEPA, 1, 4-Dioxane Fact Sheet: Support Document, OPPT Chemical Fact Sheets. Accessed 2013-9-30.

Cited by

  1. Development of dynamic headspace-liquid phase microextraction method performed in a home-made extraction vessel for extraction and preconcentration of 1,4-dioxane from shampoo vol.13, pp.8, 2016,