DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Mutual Recognition of National Military Airworthiness Authorities: A Streamlined Assessment Process

Purton, Leon;Kourousis, Kyriakos I.;Clothier, Reece;Massey, Kevin

  • Received : 2013.11.20
  • Accepted : 2014.03.06
  • Published : 2014.03.30

Abstract

The Air and Space Interoperability Council (ASIC) has adopted the European Defence Agency (EDA) process for inter-regulatory military airworthiness authority recognition. However, there are gaps in the application of this process to nations outside of the European Union. This paper proposes a model that can effectively map diverse technical airworthiness regulatory frameworks. This model, referred to as the Product-Behaviour-Process (PBP) Bow-Tie model, provides the systematic structure needed to represent and compare regulatory frameworks. The PBP Bow-Tie model identifies key points of difference that need to be addressed, during inter-agency recognition between the two regulatory authorities. With the intention to adopt global use of the EDA process, the proposed PBP Bow-Tie model can be used as a basis for the successful recognition of regulatory frameworks outside of the European Union. Iris plots produced from the implementation of this model are presented, and proposed as a suitable means of illustrating the outcome of an assessment, and of supporting the comparisons of results. A comparative analysis of the Australian Defence Force and New Zealand Defence Force airworthiness regulatory frameworks is used as a case study. The case study clearly illustrates the effectiveness of the model in discerning regulatory framework differences; moreover, it has offered an opportunity to explore the limitations of the Iris plot.

Keywords

airworthiness;military aviation;military airworthiness authority;regulations;assessment framework;mutual recognition;bow-tie model

References

  1. C. Masterton, "A Vision for European Military Airworthiness Harmonisation - Powerpoint presentation," 21 Apr 2013.
  2. Military Airworthiness Authority (MAWA), "Military Airworthiness Authourity Forum Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)," 12 Mar 2013.
  3. European Defence Agency. "European Military Airworthiness - EDA project webpage," 10 Apr 2013.
  4. European Defence Agency, "European Military Airworthiness Document - Recognition (EMAD-R)," 2013.
  5. M. Toy, "External Recogntion - MAA (UK) and AMRDEC (US Army), presentation to MAC 2013."
  6. L. Purton, and K. Kourousis, "Military airworthiness management frameworks: a critical review," Procedia Engineering, In Press - Accepted Manuscript.
  7. L. Purton, R. Clothier, and K. Kourousis, "Assessment of Technical Airworthiness in Military Aviation: Implementation and Further advancement of the Bow-Tie Model," Procedia Engineering, In Press - Accepted Manuscript.
  8. R. Ferdous, F. Khan, and R. Sadiq et al., "Analyzing system safety and risks under uncertainty using a bowtie diagram: An innovative approach," Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol. 91, No. 1-2, 2013, pp. 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2011.08.010
  9. K. Mokhtari, J. Ren, and C. Roberts et al., "Application of a generic bow-tie based risk analysis framework on risk management of sea ports and offshore terminals," Journal of Hazardous Materials,Vol. 192, No. 2, 2011, pp. 465-475. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.05.035
  10. A. S. Markowski, and A. Kotynia, "Bow-tie model in layer of protection analysis," Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol. 89, No. 4, 2011, pp. 205-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2011.04.005
  11. N. Khakzad, F. Khan, and P. Amyotte, "Dynamic risk analysis using bow-tie approach," Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Vol. 104, No. 0, 2012, pp. 36-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2012.04.003
  12. R. Ferdous, F. Khan, and R. Sadiq et al., "Handling and updating uncertain information in bow-tie analysis," Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2012, pp. 8-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2011.06.018
  13. S. Lewis, and K. Smith, "Lessons learned from real world application of the bow-tie method," 6th Global Congress on Process Safety, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 2010, pp. 472-483.
  14. F. R. Chevreau, J. L. Wybo, and D. Cauchois, "Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bowtie representation," Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 130, No. 3, 2006, pp. 276-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.07.018
  15. N. J. Duijm, "Safety-barrier diagrams as a safety management tool," Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol. 94, No. 2, 2009, pp. 332-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ress.2008.03.031
  16. M. J. Gifford, S. M. Gilbert, and I. Barnes, "The Use of Bow-tie Analysis in OME Safety Cases," ESAS, Bristol, UK, 2003.
  17. E. A. Bale, and D. W. Edwards, "Technical Integrity- An Engineer's View," Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Vol. 78, No. 5, 2000, pp. 355-361. https://doi.org/10.1205/095758200530871
  18. J. Reason, "Education and debate: Human error: Models and management," British Medical Journal, Vol. 320, No. 7237, 2000, pp. 768-70. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7237.768
  19. J. Reason, Human Error, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990 (first published).
  20. J. Reason, Managing the risks of organizational accidents, Ashgate, Aldershot,1997.
  21. J. Rasmussen, and I. Svedung, Proactive Risk Management in a Dynamic Society, First ed.: Risk & Environmental Department, Swedish Rescue Services Agency, Karlstad, 2000.
  22. J. Rasmussen, "Risk management in a dynamic society: A modelling problem," Safety Science, Vol. 27, No. 2-3, 1997, pp. 183-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(97)00052-0

Cited by

  1. Civil and military airworthiness challenges in Asia vol.19, pp.2, 2015, https://doi.org/10.3846/16487788.2015.1057993
  2. Continuing Airworthiness: Major Drivers and Challenges in Civil and Military Aviation vol.19, pp.4, 2015, https://doi.org/10.3846/16487788.2015.1126909
  3. Safety management systems: an opportunity and a challenge for military aviation organisations pp.0002-2667, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1108/AEAT-05-2018-0146