- Volume 43 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Protective Effect of Citrus unshiu Peel Extract on Ethanol-Induced Fatty Liver in Rats
흰쥐에서 감귤과피 추출물의 알코올성 지방간 개선 작용
- Kim, Juyeon (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Changwon National University) ;
- Choi, In-Wook (Korea Food Research Institute) ;
- Noh, Sang Kyu (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Changwon National University)
- Received : 2013.11.21
- Accepted : 2013.11.29
- Published : 2014.02.28
This study investigated whether or not Citrus unshiu peel extract (CPE) affects fat accumulation in livers of rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet. Initially, male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in stainless steel, wire-bottomed cages with free access to a Lieber-Decarli control liquid diet. Rats were divided by body weight into three groups of eight each: one group of rats was fed the Lieber-Decarli control liquid diet devoid of ethanol (control), another was fed the Lieber-Decarli ethanol diet (ethanol), and third was fed the same ethanol diet except containing CPE. All three groups were fed their respective diets for 6 weeks. Serum and liver lipids were analyzed and liver histology performed. Body weight did not differ among the groups over the 6-wk duration. Histology images showed that CPE administration significantly improved fat accumulation in livers, which was induced by ethanol diet. Serum levels of transaminases and lipids also were reduced by CPE consumption. Taken together, the results indicate that CPE may protect ethanol-induced fatty liver by lowering fat accumulation in both the liver and blood. The protective effects of CPE appear to be due to its phenolic contents.
Supported by : 한국식품연구원
- Rehm J, Mathers C, Popova S, Thavorncharoensap M, Teerawattananon Y, Patra J. 2009. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Lancet 373: 2223-2233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60746-7
- Neuman MG, French SW, Casey CA, Kharbanda KK, Nanau RM, Rasineni K, McVicker BL, Kong V, Donohue TM Jr. 2013. Changes in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced liver disease - Preclinical studies. Exp Mol Pathol 95: 376-384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexmp.2013.10.006
- Reuben A. 2008. Alcohol and the liver. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24: 328-338. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOG.0b013e3282fbceca
- Lieber CS. 2004. Alcoholic fatty liver: its pathogenesis and mechanism of progression to inflammation and fibrosis. Alcohol 34: 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2004.07.008
- Siegmund SV, Brenner DA. 2005. Molecular pathogenesis of alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29: 102S-109S. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000189275.97419.58
- Nagata K, Suzuki H, Sakaguchi S. 2007. Common pathogenic mechanism in development progression of liver injury caused by non-alcoholic or alcoholic steatohepatitis. J Toxicol Sci 32: 453-468. https://doi.org/10.2131/jts.32.453
- Chung SK, Kim SH, Choi YH, Song EY, Kim SH. 2000. Status of citrus fruit production and view of utilization in Cheju. Food Ind Nutr 5: 42-52.
- Lee MH, Hur D, Jo DJ, Lee GD, Yoon SR. 2007. Flavonoids components and functional properties of citrus peel hydrolysate. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36: 1358-1364. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.11.1358
- Son HS, Kim HS, Kwon TB, Ju JS. 1992. Isolation, purification and hypotensive effects of bioflavonoids in Citrus sinensis. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 21: 136-142.
- Park HJ, Jung UJ, Cho SJ, Jung HK, Shim S, Choi MS. 2013. Citrus unshiu peel extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis by altering inflammation and hepatic glucose- and lipid-regulating enzymes in db/db mice. J Nutr Biochem 24: 419-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.12.009
- Iwata E, Hotta H, Goto M. 2012. Hypolipidemic and bifidogenic potentials in the dietary fiber prepared from Mikan (Japanese mandarin orange: Citrus unshiu) albedo. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 58: 175-180. https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.58.175
- Monfote MT, Trovato A, Kirjavanine S, Forestieri AM, Galati EML, Curto TB. 1995. Biological effects of hesperidin a citrus flavonoid: hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat. Farmaco 50: 595-599.
- Xu GH, Chen JC, Liu DH, Zhang YH, Jiang P, Ye XQ. 2008. Minerals, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity of citrus peel extract by hot water. J Food Sci 73: C11-C18.
- Yang X, Kang SM, Jeon BT, Kim YD, Ha JH, Kim YT, Jeon YJ. 2011. Isolation and identification of an antioxidant flavonoid compound from citrus-processing by-product. J Sci Food Agric 91: 1925-1927. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4402
- Lee S, Ra J, Song JY, Gwak C, Kwon HJ, Yim SV, Hong SP, Kim J, Lee KH, Cho JJ, Park YS, Park CS, Ahn HJ. 2011. Extracts from Citrus unshiu promote immune-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in a murine renal cell carcinoma model. J Ethnopharmacol 133: 973-979. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.018
Yoshigai E, Machida T, Okuyama T, Mori M, Murase H, Yamanishi R, Okumura T, Ikeya Y, Nishino H, Nishizawa M. 2013. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1
$\beta$-treated hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 439: 54-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.08.029
- Kang HJ, Chawla SP, Jo C, Kwon JH, Byun MW. 2006. Studies on the development of functional powder from citrus peel. Bioresource Technology 97: 614-620. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.03.037
- Lieber CS, DeCarli LM. 1986. The feeding of ethanol in liquid diets. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 10: 550-553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1986.tb05140.x
- Park HY, Park Y, Lee Y, Noh SK, Sung EG, Choi I. 2012. Effect of oral administration of water-soluble extract from citrus peel (Citrus unshiu) on suppressing alcohol-induced fatty liver in rats. Food Chem 130: 598-604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.07.081
- Folch PJ, Lees M, Sloane-Stanley GM. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226: 497-509.
- Agren JJ, Julkunen A, Penttila I. 1992. Rapid separation of serum lipids for fatty acid analysis by a single aminopropyl column. J Lipid Res 33: 1871-1876.
- Noh SK, Koo SI, Jeon IJ. 1999. Estrogen replacement in ovariectomized rats increases the hepatic concentration and biliary secretion of alpha-tocopherol and polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Nutr Biochem 10: 110-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(98)00090-4
- Slover HT, Lanze E. 1979. Quantitative analysis of food fatty acids by capillary gas chromatography. J Am Oil Chem Soc 56: 933-943. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02674138
- Pikaar NA, Wedel M, van der Beek EJ, van Dokkum W, Kempen HJ, Kluft C, Ockhuizen T, Hermus RJ. 1987. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on the platelet aggregation fibrinolysis, and blood lipids. Metabolism 36: 538-543. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(87)90163-6
- Lieber CS, DeCarli LM. 1974. An experimental model of alcohol feeding and liver injury in the baboon. J Med Prim 3: 153-163.
- Nam KS, Kim JY, Noh SK, Park JH, Sung EG. 2011. Effect of sweet persimmon wine on alcoholic fatty livers in rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 40: 1548-1555. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.11.1548
- Zeman FJ. 1991. Liver disease and alcoholism. In Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics. 2nd ed. Macmillan Publ, New York, NY, USA. p 517-553.
- Jung UJ, Lee MK, Park YB, Kang MA, Choi MS. 2006. Effects of citrus flavonoids on liipid metabolism and glucose- regulating enzyme mRNA level in type-2 diabetic mice. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 38: 1134-1145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2005.12.002
- Kim SJ, Kim J, Kim HJ, Kim SH, Lee SH, Park YS, Park BK, Kim BS, Kim SK, Yoon SI, Choi CS, Jung JY. 2008. Effect of naringin on lipid metabolism and antithrombotic capacity in rat. J Fd Hyg Safety 23: 297-303.
Noh SK, Koo SI. 2004. Milk sphingomyelin is more potent inhibitor than egg sphingomyelin of intestinal absorption of cholesterol and
$\alpha$-tocopherol in rats. J Nutr 134: 2611-2616.
- Yugarani T, Tan BK, Das NP. 1993. The effect of tannic acid on serum lipid parameters and tissue lipid peroxides in the spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar Kyoto rats. Planta Med 59: 28-31. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959598
- Shin HK, Seo YJ, Kim JY, Kim CS, Noh SK. 2007. Onion favorably affects serum markers of ethanol-induced fatty liver in rats. Korean J Food Preserv 14: 662-668.
- Park PS, Lee BR, Lee MY. 1996. Effects of onion juice on ethanol-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation in rats. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 23: 750-756.
- Yoon OH, Kang BT, Lee JW, Kim KO. 2008. Effect of plum wine on the lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidation of rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37: 422-427. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2008.37.4.422
- Moon SW, Kang SH, Jin YJ, Park JG, Lee YD, Lee YK, Park DB, Kim SJ. 2004. Fermentation of Citrus unshiu Marc. and functional characteristics of the fermented products. Korean J Food Sci Technol 36: 669-676.
- Seo HJ, Jeong KS, Lee MK, Park YB, Jung UJ, Kim HJ, Choi MS. 2003. Role of naringin supplement in regulation of lipid and ethanol metabolism in rats. Life Sci 73: 933-946. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(03)00358-8
- Lieber CS. 1994. Alcohol and the liver. Gastroenterology 106: 1085-1105.
- Moncade C, Torres V, Barghese G, Albano E, Isrsel Y. 1994. Ethanol-derived immuno reactive species formed by radical mechanisms. Mol Pharmacol 46: 786-791.
- Anila L, Vijayalakshmi NR. 2002. Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mongifera indica - effectiveness for dyslipidemia. J Ethnopharmacol 79: 81-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00361-0
- Cha JY, Cho YS, Kim IS, Anno N, Rahman SH, Yanagita T. 2001. Effect of hesperetin, a citrus flavonoid, on the liver triacylglycerol content and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity in orotic acid-fed rats. Plant Food Human Nutr 56: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008159928856
- Bok SH, Lee SH, Yark YB, Bae KH, Son KH, Jeong TS, Choi MS. 1999. Plasma and hapatic cholesterol and hepatic activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and acyl CoA:cholesterol transferase are lower in rats fed citrus peel extract or a mixture of citrus bioflavonoids. J Nutr 127: 1282-1285.
- Bose M, Lambert JD, Ju J, Reuhl KR, Shapses SA, Yang CS. 2008. The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin- 3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice. J Nutr 138: 1677- 1683.
- Gnoni GV, Paglialonga G, Siculella L. 2009. Quercetin inhibits fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in rat-liver cells. Eur J Clin Invest 39: 761-768. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.2009.02167.x
- Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patties with Tangerine (Citrus unshiu) during Refrigeration Storage vol.26, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.17495/easdl.2016.6.26.3.250
- Effect of Orostachys malacophyllus by Fermented Lactic Acid Bacteria on Plasma Levels of Lipid and Lipid Peroxidation in Alcohol Feeding Rats vol.24, pp.6, 2014, https://doi.org/10.5352/JLS.2014.24.6.677
- Protective Effect of Onion Wine on Alcoholic Fatty Liver in Rats vol.45, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2016.45.4.467