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Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Immature Citrus unshiu Vinegar

감귤 미숙과 식초의 품질 특성과 항산화 활성

  • 이미란 (제주대학교 생명과학기술혁신센터) ;
  • 황준호 (제주대학교 생명과학기술혁신센터) ;
  • 오유성 (제주대학교 생명과학기술혁신센터) ;
  • 오현정 (제주대학교 생명과학기술혁신센터) ;
  • 임상빈 (제주대학교 생명과학기술혁신센터)
  • Received : 2013.10.18
  • Accepted : 2013.12.04
  • Published : 2014.02.28

Abstract

To develop vinegar with immature Citrus unshiu (IC), bacterial strains with high acetic acid-producing capabilities were isolated and identified, after which their quality characteristics, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities were measured. Five bacterial strains were isolated from naturally fermented C. unshiu, and three were identified as Acetobacter fabarum (A. sp. RIC I) and A. pomorum (A. sp. RIC II, V). A. sp. RIC V showed the highest acetic acid-producing capability and was thus chosen as the candidate strain for further acetic fermentation using IC juice. Vinegars made with 30, 35, and 40% IC juices showed acidities of 5.38, 5.38, and 5.32% and fermentation efficiencies of 73, 72, and 70%, respectively. The fermentation periods required to reach greater than 5% acidity were 11, 9, and 9 days for vinegars containing 30, 35, and 40% IC juices, respectively. Fructose and glucose contents of the vinegars increased along with total organic acid contents including acetic acid, with increasing IC juice contents. Total phenolics were 1,546.6 and $230.9{\mu}g$ GAE/mL, whereas total flavonoids were 1,004.7 and $175.1{\mu}g$ QE/mL in vinegars made with IC and mature C. unshiu (MC) juices, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activities were 29% and 5%, ABTS radical scavenging activities were 62.0% and 17.9%, SOA scavenging activities were 60.9% and 41.7%, and XO scavenging activities were 32.5% and 5% in vinegars made with IC and MC juices, respectively. Therefore, vinegars made with 35% and 40% IC juices using A. sp. RIC V as the acetic acid fermentation strain showed potent antioxidant activities with greater total phenolic and flavonoid contents, promoting their use as functional vinegars.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 중소기업청

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