Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

  • Amanullah, S.M. (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture and Life Science), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, D.H. (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture and Life Science), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, H.J. (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture and Life Science), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Joo, Y.H. (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture and Life Science), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Kim, S.B. (National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Kim, S.C. (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21Plus, Institute of Agriculture and Life Science), Gyeongsang National University)
  • Received : 2013.10.01
  • Accepted : 2013.11.29
  • Published : 2014.04.01


This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3-5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum ($1{\times}10^{10}cfu/g$, LP) or Effective Microorganisms ($0.5{\times}10^9cfu/g$, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p<0.05). The contents of ADF, NDF and hemicellulose as well as the in vitro DM digestibility were not affected by microbial inoculation (p>0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants.


Aerobic Stability;Bacterial Inoculant;Barley Silage;Fermentation Indices


Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development

Supported by : Rural Development Administration


  1. Acosta, Y. M., C. C. Stalings, C. E. Polan, and C. N. Miller. 1991. Evaluation of barley silage harvested at boot and soft dough stages. J. Dairy Sci. 74:167-176.
  2. Adesogan, A. T., N. K. Krueger, M. B. Salawu, D. B. Dean, and C. R. Staples. 2004. The influence of treatment with dual-purpose bacterial inoculants or soluble carbohydrates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermuda grass. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3407-3416.
  3. Adesogan, A. T., L. E. Sollenberger, Y. C. Newman, and J. M. B. Vendramini. 2002. Factors affecting forage quality. In: Florida Forage Handbook, Department of Agronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
  4. Boufaied, H., P. Y. Chouinard, G. F. Tremblay, H. V. Petit, R. Michaud, and G. Belanger. 2003. Fatty acids in forages. I. Factors affecting concentrations. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 83:501-511.
  5. Arriola, K. G., S. C. Kim, C. R. Staples, and A. T. Adesogan. 2011. Effect of applying inoculants containing different types of bacteria to corn silage on the performance of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 94:3973-3979.
  6. AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 15th edn, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
  7. Baah, J., W. Addah, E. K. Okine, and T. A. McAllister. 2011. Effects of homolactic bacterial inoculant alone or combined with an anionic surfactant on fermentation, aerobic stability and in situ ruminal degradability of barley silage. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 24:369-378.
  8. Chaney, A. L. and E. P. Marbach. 1962. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Chem. 8:130-132.
  9. Courtin, M. G. and S. F. Spoelstra. 1990. A simulation model of the microbiological and chemical changes accompanying the initial stage of aerobic deterioration of silage. Grass Forage Sci. 45:153-165.
  10. Hargreaves, A., J. Hill, and J. D. Leaver. 2009. Effect of stage of growth on the chemical composition, nutritive value and ensilability of whole-crop barley. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 152:50-61.
  11. Henderson, N. 1993. Silage additives. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 45:35-56.
  12. Higa, T. 1991. Effective microorganisms: A biotechnology for mankind. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Kyusei Nature Farming. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 8-14.
  13. Kung, L. Jr. and R. Shaver. 2001. Interpretation and use of silage fermentation analysis reports. In: Focus on Forage, University of Wisconsin Extension, USA, 3(13):1-5.
  14. Higginbotham, G. E., S. C. Mueller, K. K. Bolsen, and E. J. DePeters. 1998. Effects of inoculants containing propionic acid bacteria on fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2185-2192.
  15. Holzer, M., E. Mayrhuber, H. Danner, and R. Braun. 2003. The role of Lactobacillus buchneri in forage preservation. Trends Biotechnol. 21:282-287.
  16. Jalc, D., A. Laukova, M. Simonova, Z. Varadyova, and P. Homolka. 2009. The use of bacterial inoculants for grass silage: their effects on nutrient composition and fermentation parameters in grass silages. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 54:84-91.
  17. Kung, L. Jr. and N. K. Ranjit. 2001. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and other additives on the fermentation and aerobic stability of barley silage. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1149-1155.
  18. McAllister, T. A., G. D. Inglis, Z. Mir, and A. N. Hristov. 1999. Effect of inoculants on fermentation and performance of feedlot cattle fed barley and corn silage. Final Report, Project A00825-939, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre /Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK.
  19. McAllister, T. A., L. B. Selinger, L. R. McMahon, H. D. Bae, T. J. Lysyk, S. J. Oosting, and K. J. Cheng. 1995. Intake, digestibility and aerobic stability of barley silage inoculated with mixtures of Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 75:425-432.
  20. Muck, R. E. 1993. The role of silage additives in making high quality silage. Proceedings of the National Silage Production Conference on Silage Production from Seed to Animal, Syracuse, NY, USA. pp. 106-116.
  21. Park, T. I., O. K. Han, J. H. Seo, J. S. Choi, K. H. Park, and J. G. Kim. 2008. New barley cultivars with improved morphological characteristics for whole crop forage in Korea. J. Korean. Grass. Forage Sci. 28:193-202.
  22. Muck, R. E. 2004. Effects of corn silage inoculants on aerobic stability. Trans. ASAE. 47:1011-1016.
  23. Ohshima, M. and P. McDonald. 1978. A review of the changes in nitrogenous compounds of herbage during ensilage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 29:497-505.
  24. Oude Elferink, S. J. W. H., J. Krooneman, J. C. Gottschal, S. F. Spoelstra, F. Faber, and F. Driehuis. 2001. Anaerobic conversion of lactic acid to acetic acid and 1, 2-propanediol by Lactobacillus buchneri. Appl. Environ. Microb. 67:125-132.
  25. Ranjit, N. K. and L. Jr. Kung. 2000. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, or a chemical preservative on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage. J. Dairy Sci. 83:526-535.
  26. Seglar, B. 2003. Fermentation analysis and silage quality testing. Proceedings of the Minnesota Dairy Health Conference. College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, May 2003.
  27. Shaver, R. D. 2003. Practical application of new forage quality tests. Proceedings of the 6th Western Dairy Management Conference, Reno, USA. pp. 22-25.
  28. SAS Institute Inc. 2002. SAS/STAT user's guide: Version 9. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
  29. Sucu, E. and I. Filya. 2006. Effects of bacterial inoculants on fermentation, aerobic stability and rumen degradability characteristics of wheat silages. Turkish J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 30:187-193.
  30. Tudisco, R., S. Calabro, V. Terzi, V. Piccolo, A. Guglielmelli, and F. Infascelli. 2009. In vitro fermentation of ten cultivars of barley silage. Italian J. Anim. Sci. 8 (Suppl. 2):343-345.
  31. Taylor, C. C., N. J. Ranjit, J. A. Mills, J. M. Neylon, and L. Jr. Kung. 2002. The effect of treating whole-plant barley with Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1793-1800.
  32. Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassland Soc. 18:104-111.
  33. Tudisco, R., S. Calabro, M. Grossi, G. Piccolo, A. Guglielmelli, M. I. Cutrignelli, C. Caiazzo, and F. Infascelli. 2010. Influence of replacing corn silage with barley silage in the diets of buffalo cows on milk yield and quality. Vet. Res. Commun. 34 (Suppl. 1):S193-S196.
  34. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  35. Warren, H. E., J. K. S. Tweed, S. J. Youell, R. J. Dewhurst, M. R. F. Lee, and N. D. Scollan. 2002. Effect of ensiling on the fatty acid composition of the resultant silage. In: Multi-Function Grasslands, 7. Grassland Science in Europe, (Ed. J. L. Durand, J. C. Emile, C. Huyghe, and G. Lemaire), 100-101.
  36. Weinberg, Z. G., G. Ashbell, K. K. Bolson, G. Pahlow, Y. Hen, and A. Azrieli. 1995. The effect of a propionic acid bacterial inoculant applied at ensiling, with or without lactic acid bacteria, on the aerobic stability of pearl millet and maize silages. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 78:430-436.
  37. Weissbach, F. 1996. New developments in crop conservation. Proceedings of the 11th International Silage Conference, Aberystwyth, IGER. pp. 11-25.
  38. Zahiroddini, H., J. Baah, W. Absalom, and T. A. McAllister. 2004. Effect of an inoculant and hydrolytic enzymes on fermentation and nutritive value of whole crop barley silage. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 117:317-330.
  39. Zahiroddini, H., J. Baah and T. A. McAllister. 2006. Effects of microbial inoculants on the fermentation, nutrient retention, and aerobic stability of barley silage. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1429-1436.

Cited by

  1. Effects of Bacterial Inoculants and Cutting Height on Fermentation Quality of Barley Silage vol.34, pp.3, 2014,
  2. Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage vol.28, pp.9, 2015,
  3. Effect of Addition of Chlorella and Lactic Acid Bacteria on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Quality of Fresh Rice Straw Silage vol.35, pp.2, 2015,
  4. Effect of Novel Lactobacillus plantarum KCC-10 and KCC-19 on Fermentation Characterization of Alfalfa Silage vol.35, pp.2, 2015,
  5. Effect of Addition of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Fermentation Quality of Rye Silage vol.35, pp.4, 2015,
  6. Fermentative profile and bacterial diversity of corn silages inoculated with new tropical lactic acid bacteria vol.120, pp.2, 2016,
  7. Potential effects of Novel Lactic Acid Bacteria on Fermentation Quality of Rye Haylage vol.36, pp.1, 2016,
  8. Effects of hybrid and bacterial inoculation on fermentation quality and fatty acid profile of barley silage pp.13443941, 2017,
  9. Microbiological and chemical profiles of elephant grass inoculated with and without Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici pp.1432-072X, 2017,
  10. Isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria from King grass and their application to improve the fermentation quality of sweet Sorghum vol.34, pp.1, 2018,
  11. under non‐sterile conditions pp.1097-0010, 2019,