Fatty Acid Profiles of Supraspinatus, Longissimus lumborum and Semitendinosus Muscles and Serum in Kacang Goats Supplemented with Inorganic Selenium and Iodine

  • Aghwan, Z.A. (Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia) ;
  • Alimon, A.R. (Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia) ;
  • Goh, Y.M. (Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia) ;
  • Nakyinsige, K. (Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia) ;
  • Sazili, A.Q. (Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia)
  • Received : 2013.09.05
  • Accepted : 2013.11.06
  • Published : 2014.04.01


Fat and fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues are among the major factors influencing meat quality particularly nutritional value and palatability. The present study was carried out to examine the effects of supplementing inorganic selenium (Se), iodine (I) and a combination of both on fatty acid compositions in serum, and supraspinatus (SS), longissimus lumborum (LL), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles in goats. Twenty-four, 7 to 8 months old, Kacang male goats with a mean live weight of $22.00{\pm}1.17kg$ were individually and randomly assigned into four groups of six animals each for 100 d of feeding prior to slaughter. The animals were offered the same concentrate (basal) diet as 1% of body weight with ad libitum amount of fresh guinea grass. The four groups were as follows: T1 (control) - basal diet without supplementation; T2 - basal diet with 0.6 mg Se/kg DM; T3 - basal diet with 0.6 mg I/kg DM; T4 - basal diet with combination of 0.6 mg Se/kg DM and 0.6 mg I/kg DM. The major fatty acids (FAs) detected in the serum were palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1n9) and linoleic (C18:2n-6), while the major FAs in the selected muscles were C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9 acids. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) detected in muscles and serum were (CI8:2n-6), linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in the concentration of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) among the four groups. PUFA concentrations in the goats supplemented with Se (T2) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the goats of the control group (T1). The PUFA: SFA ratio was significantly higher in the animals supplemented with dietary Se (T2) than those of control ones (T1). It is concluded that dietary supplementation of inorganic Se increased the unsaturated fatty acids in muscle. The supplementation of iodine with or without Se had negligible effects on muscle fatty acid content of Kacang crossbred male goats.


Fatty Acids;Selenium;Iodine;Serum;Goat Meat


  1. AOAC. 1984. Official methods of analysis, 14th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA.
  2. Aurousseau, B., D. Bauchart, E. Calichon, D. Micol, and A. Priolo. 2004. Effect of grass or concentrate feeding systems and rate of growth on triglyceride and phospholipid and their fatty acids in the M. longissimus thoracis of lambs. Meat Sci. 66: 531-541.
  3. Banskalieva, V., T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch. 2000. Fatty acid composition of goat muscles and fat depots: a review. Small Rumin. Res. 37:255-268.
  4. Bhattacharya, A., J. Banu, M. Rahman, J. Causey, and G. Fernandes. 2006. Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acids in health and disease. J. Nutr. Biochem. 17:789-810.
  5. British Department of Health. 1994. Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease. Report on health and social subjects no. 46. HMSO, London.
  6. Buccioni, A., M. Decandia, S. Minieri, G. Molle, and A. Cabiddu. 2012. Lipid metabolism in the rumen: New insights on lipolysis and biohydrogenation with an emphasis on the role of endogenous plant factors. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 174:1-25.
  7. Dehority, B. A. 2003. Rumen microbiology. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK. pp 372.
  8. Chilliard, Y., F. Glasser, A. Ferlay, L. Bernard, J. Rouel, and M. Doreau. 2007. Diet, rumen biohydrogenationand nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109:828-855.
  9. Chin, S. F., J. Storkson, Y. L. Ha, and M. W. Pariza. 1992. Dietary sources of conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid, a newly recognized class of anticarcinogens. J. Food Compost. Anal. 5: 185-197.
  10. De Smet, S., K. Raes, and D. Demeyer. 2004. Meat fatty acid composition as affected by fatness and genetic factors: a review. Anim. Res. 53:81-98.
  11. Ebrahimi, M., M. A. Rajion, Y. M. Goh, and A. Q. Sazili. 2012. Impact of different inclusion levels of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) fronds on fatty acid profiles of goat muscles. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 96:962-969.
  12. Field, C. J., H. H. Blewett, S. Proctor, and D. Vine. 2009. Human health benefits of vaccenic acid. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 34:979-991.
  13. Griinari, J. M., B. A. Corl, S. H. Lacy, P. Y. Chouinard, K. V. V. Nurmela, and D. E. Bauman. 2000. Conjugated linoleic acid is synthesized endogenously in lactating dairy cows by ${\Delta}^{9}$-desaturase. J. Nutr. 130:2285-2291.
  14. Jenkins, T. C., R. J. Wallace, P. J. Moate, and E. E. Mosley. 2008. Board-invited review: Recent advances in biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids within the rumen microbial ecosystem. J. Anim. Sci. 86:397-412.
  15. Karami, M., A. R. Alimon, A. Q. Sazili, Y. M. Goh, and M. Ivan. 2011. Effects of dietary antioxidants on the quality, fatty acid profile, and lipid oxidation of longissimus muscle in Kacang goat with aging time. Meat Sci. 88:102-108.
  16. Mahgoub, O., A. J. Khan, R. S. Al-Maqbaly, J. N. Al-Sabahi, K. Annamalai, and N. M. Al-Sakry. 2002. Fatty acid composition of muscle and fat tissues of Omani Jebel Akhdar goats of different sexes and weights. Meat Sci. 61:381-387.
  17. Katan, M. B., P. L. Zock, and R. P. Mensink. 1994. Effects of fats and fatty acids on blood lipids in humans: an over view. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 60:1017S-1022S.
  18. Leheska, J. M., L. D. Thompson, J. C. Howe, E. Hentges, J. Boyce, J. C. Brooks, B. Shriver, L. Hoover, and M. F. Miller. 2008. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef. J. Anim.Sci. 86:3575-3585.
  19. Liu, S. M., H. X. Sun, C. Jose, A. Murray, Z. H. Sun, J. R. Briegel, R. Jacob, and Z. L. Tan. 2011. Phenotypic blood glutathione concentration and selenium supplementation interactions on meat colour stability and fatty acid concentrations in Merino lambs. Meat Sci. 87:130-139.
  20. Naud'e, T. and H. S. Hofmeyer. 1981. Meat Production in Goat Production. Academic Press, London. UK.
  21. National Research Council. 1981. Nutrient requirements of goats. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  22. Perry, D., P. J. Nicholls, and J. M. Thompson. 1998. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 76:87-95.
  23. Pratiwi, N. M. W., P. J. Murray, and D. G. Taylor. 2007. Feral goats in Australia: A study on the quality and nutritive value of their meat. Meat Sci. 75:168-177.
  24. Raes, K., S. De Smet, and D. Demeyer. 2004. Effect of dietary fatty acids on incorporation of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in lamb, beef and pork meat: a review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 113:199-221.
  25. Simopoulos, A. P. 2002. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 21:495-505.
  26. Rajion, M. A., J. G. McLean, and R. N. Cahill. 1985. Essential fatty acid metabolism in the fetal and neonatal lamb. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 38:33-40.
  27. SAS. 2007. User's guide: Statistics. Version 9.2. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  28. Simopoulos, A. P. 2008. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp. Biol. Med. 233:674-688.
  29. Skrivanova, E., M. Marounek, S. De Smet, and K. Raes. 2007. Influence of dietary selenium and vitamin E on quality of veal. Meat Sci. 76:495-500.
  30. Smith, S. B., D. R. Smith, and D. K. Lunt. 2004. Chemical and physical characteristics of meat: adipose tissue. In: Encyclopedia of meat sciences (Ed. W. Jensen, C. Devine, and M. Dikemann). Elsevier Science, Oxford. pp. 225-238.
  31. Talpur, F. N., M. I. Bhanger, and S. T. H. Sherazi. 2008. Intramuscular fatty acid profile of longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus muscle from Pateri goats fed under traditional feeding system of Sindh, Pakistan. Meat Sci. 80:819-822.
  32. Traulsen, H., H. Steinbrenner, D. P. Buchczyk, L. O. Klotz, and H. Sies. 2004. Selenoprotein P protects low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. Free Rad. Res. 38:123-128.
  33. USDA. 1989. Official United States Standards for grades of carcass beef. Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. Washington, DC.
  34. Webb, E. C., N. H. Casey, and L. Simela. 2005. Goat meat quality. Small Rumin.Res. 60:153-166.
  35. Wood, J. D., R. I. Richardson, G. R. Nute, A. V. Fisher, M. M. Campo, E. Kasapidou, P. R. Sheard, and M. Enser. 2003. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: a review. Meat Sci. 66:21-32.
  36. Werdi Pratiwi, N. M., P. J. Murray, and D. G. Taylor. 2007. Feral goats in Australia: A study on the quality and nutritive value of their meat. Meat Sci. 75:168-177.
  37. Werdi Pratiwi, N. M., P. J. Murray, D. G. Taylor, and D. Zhang. 2006. Comparison of breed, slaughter weight and castration on fatty acid profiles in the longissimus thoracic muscle from male Boer and Australian feral goats. Small Rumin. Res. 64: 94-100.
  38. Wood, J. D., M. Enser, A. V. Fisher, G. R. Nute, P. R. Sheard, R. I. Richardson, S. I. Hughes, and F. M. Whittington. 2008. Fat deposition, fatty acid composition and meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 78:343-358.
  39. Yu, L. L., R. L. Wang, Y. Z. Zhang, D. O. Kleemann, X. P. Zhu, and Z. H. Jia. 2008. Effects of selenium supplementation on polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and antioxidant status in plasma and liver of lambs fed linseed oil or sunflower oil diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 140:39-51.

Cited by

  1. Is meat quality from Longissimus lumborum samples correlated with other cuts in horse meat? vol.87, pp.3, 2015,