Trends and Projected Estimates of GHG Emissions from Indian Livestock in Comparisons with GHG Emissions from World and Developing Countries

  • Patra, Amlan Kumar (Department of Animal Nutrition, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences)
  • Received : 2013.06.17
  • Accepted : 2013.08.23
  • Published : 2014.04.01


This study presents trends and projected estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock of India vis-$\grave{a}$-vis world and developing countries over the period 1961 to 2010 estimated based on IPCC guidelines. World enteric methane emission (EME) increased by 54.3% (61.5 to $94.9{\times}10^9kg$ annually) from the year 1961 to 2010, and the highest annual growth rate (AGR) was noted for goat (2.0%), followed by buffalo (1.57%) and swine (1.53%). Global EME is projected to increase to $120{\times}10^9kg$ by 2050. The percentage increase in EME by Indian livestock was greater than world livestock (70.6% vs 54.3%) between the years 1961 to 2010, and AGR was highest for goat (1.91%), followed by buffalo (1.55%), swine (1.28%), sheep (1.25%) and cattle (0.70%). In India, total EME was projected to grow by $18.8{\times}10^9kg$ in 2050. Global methane emission from manure (MEM) increased from $6.81{\times}10^9kg$ in 1961 to $11.4{\times}10^9kg$ in 2010 (an increase of 67.6%), and is projected to grow to $15{\times}10^9kg$ by 2050. In India, the annual MEM increased from $0.52{\times}10^9kg$ to $1.1{\times}10^9kg$ (with an AGR of 1.57%) in this period, which could increase to $1.54{\times}10^9kg$ in 2050. Nitrous oxide emission from manure in India could be $21.4{\times}10^6kg$ in 2050 from $15.3{\times}10^6kg$ in 2010. The AGR of global GHG emissions changed a small extent (only 0.11%) from developed countries, but increased drastically (1.23%) for developing countries between the periods of 1961 to 2010. Major contributions to world GHG came from cattle (79.3%), swine (9.57%) and sheep (7.40%), and for developing countries from cattle (68.3%), buffalo (13.7%) and goat (5.4%). The increase of GHG emissions by Indian livestock was less (74% vs 82% over the period of 1961 to 2010) than the developing countries. With this trend, world GHG emissions could reach $3,520{\times}10^9kg$ $CO_2$-eq by 2050 due to animal population growth driven by increased demands for meat and dairy products in the world.


Greenhouse Gas;Methane;Nitrous Oxide;Livestock;India;Developing Countries


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