DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Exploration of optimum conditions for production of saccharogenic mixed grain beverages and assessment of anti-diabetic activity

잡곡당화음료 제조 최적 조건 탐색 및 항당뇨 활성 평가

  • Lee, Jae Sung (Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kang, Yun Hwan (Well-Being Bioproducts RIC, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Kyoung Kon (Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Yun, Yeong Kyeong (Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Lim, Jun Gu (Well-Being Bioproducts RIC, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Tae Woo (Well-Being Bioproducts RIC, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Kim, Dae Jung (Well-Being Bioproducts RIC, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Won, Sang Yeon (NS Mall) ;
  • Bae, Moo Hoan (NS Mall) ;
  • Choi, Han Seok (Fermented Food Science Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA) ;
  • Choe, Myeon (Department of Bio-Health Technology, Kangwon National University)
  • 이재성 (강원대학교 생명건강공학과) ;
  • 강윤환 (강원대학교 강원웰빙특산물산업화지역혁신센터) ;
  • 김경곤 (강원대학교 생명건강공학과) ;
  • 윤연경 (강원대학교 생명건강공학과) ;
  • 임준구 (강원대학교 강원웰빙특산물산업화지역혁신센터) ;
  • 김태우 (강원대학교 강원웰빙특산물산업화지역혁신센터) ;
  • 김대중 (강원대학교 강원웰빙특산물산업화지역혁신센터) ;
  • 원상연 ((주)엔에스쇼핑) ;
  • 배무환 ((주)엔에스쇼핑) ;
  • 최한석 (농촌진흥청 국립농업과학원 발효식품과) ;
  • 최면 (강원대학교 생명건강공학과)
  • Received : 2013.12.02
  • Accepted : 2014.01.16
  • Published : 2014.02.28

Abstract

Purpose: This study was conducted to establish the production conditions through optimization of the production process of beverages using Aspergillus oryzae CF1001, and to analyze volatile compounds and antidiabetic activity. Methods: The optimum condition was selected using the response surface methodology (RSM), through a regression analysis with the following independent variables gelatinization temperature (GT, $X_1$), saccharogenic time (ST, $X_2$), and dependent variable; ${\Delta}E$ value (y). The condition with the lowest ${\Delta}E$ value occurred with combined 45 min ST and $50^{\circ}C$ GT. The volatile compounds were analyzed quantitatively by GC-MS. Results: Assessment of antidiabetic activity of saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) was determined by measurement of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, and glucose uptake activity and glucose metabolic protein expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Results of volatile compounds analysis, 62 kinds of volatile compounds were detected in SMGB. Palmitic acid (9.534% ratio), benzaldehyde (8.948% ratio), benzyl ethyl ether (8.792% ratio), ethyl alcohol (8.35% ratio), and 2-amyl furan (4.826% ratio) were abundant in SMGB. We confirmed that ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, glucose uptake activity, and glucose-metabolic proteins were upregulated by SMGB treatment with concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) showed potential antidiabetic activity. Further studies will be needed in order to improve the taste and functionality of SMGB.

References

  1. Roman-Lopez CR, Allred JB. Acute alloxan diabetes alters the activity but not the total quantity of acetyl CoA carboxylase in rat liver. J Nutr 1987; 117(11): 1976-1981. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/117.11.1976
  2. Park MJ, Kang SJ, Kim AJ. Hypoglycemic effect of Angelica gigas naki extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J Food Nutr 2009; 22(2): 246-251.
  3. Jung UJ, Lee MK, Park YB, Kang MA, Choi MS. Effect of citrus flavonoids on lipid metabolism and glucose-regulating enzyme mRNA levels in type-2 diabetic mice. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2006; 38(7): 1134-1145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2005.12.002
  4. Mueckler M, Thorens B. The SLC2 (GLUT) family of membrane transporters. Mol Aspects Med 2013; 34(2-3): 121-138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2012.07.001
  5. McGowan KM, Long SD, Pekala PH. Glucose transporter gene expression: regulation of transcription and mRNA stability. Pharmacol Ther 1995; 66(3): 465-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-7258(95)00007-4
  6. Jung CY, Lee W. Glucose transporters and insulin action: some insights into diabetes management. Arch Pharm Res 1999; 22(4): 329-334. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02979053
  7. Park SA, Choi MS, Kim MJ, Jung UJ, Kim HJ, Park KK, Noh HJ, Park HM, Park YB, Lee JS, Lee MK. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action of Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliver) leaves water extract in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 107(3): 412-417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.034
  8. Matschinsky FM. Glucokinase as glucose sensor and metabolic signal generator in pancreatic $\beta$-cells and hepatocytes. Diabetes 1990; 39(6): 647-652. https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.39.6.647
  9. Shimizu T, Parker JC, Najafi H, Matschinsky FM. Control of glucose metabolism in pancreatic $\beta$-cells by glucokinase, hexokinase, and phosphofructokinase. Model study with cell lines derived from $\beta$-cells. Diabetes 1988; 37(11): 1524-1530. https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.37.11.1524
  10. Kim HS, Ro YJ, Choe M. Effects of Cordyceps militaris on key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2005; 34(10): 1531-1535. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2005.34.10.1531
  11. Kim HS, Kim DJ, Hwang HJ, Lee HJ, Choe M. Hypoglycemic effect of nutraceuticals extract supplementations on NIDDM patients. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 2007; 50(1): 68-71.
  12. Cho MG, Kim H, Chae YA. Analysis of volatile compounds in leaves and fruits of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Siebold et Zucc. & Zanthoxylum piperitum DC. by headspace SPME. Korean J Med Crop Sci 2003; 11(1): 40-45.
  13. Choi GW, Han M, Kim Y. Development of glucoamylase & simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process for highyield bioethanol. Korean J Biotechnol Bioeng 2008; 23(6): 499-503.
  14. Parliment TH. Solvent extraction and distillation techniques. In: Marsili R, editor. Techniques for Analyzing Food Aroma. New York (NY): Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 1997. p.1-26.
  15. Wells MJ. Chapter 2: principles of extraction and the extraction of semivolatile organics from liquids. 2.1. Principles of extraction. In: Somenath M, editor. Sample Preparation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2003. p.37-43.
  16. Lee TS, Han EH. Volatile flavor components in mash of Takju prepared by using Aspergillus oryzae Nuruks. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2001; 33(3): 366-372.
  17. Oh HS, Kim JH, Choi MY. The volatile flavor components of fresh Codonopsis lanceolata cultivated on a wild hill. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 2006; 22(6): 774-782.
  18. Choi YH, Kim KH, Kang MY. Varietal difference in processing and sensory characteristics of "Sikhe" in rice. Korean J Breed 2001; 33(2): 65-72.
  19. Cordero-Herrera I, Martin MA, Goya L, Ramos S. Cocoa flavonoids attenuate high glucose-induced insulin signalling blockade and modulate glucose uptake and production in human HepG2 cells. Food Chem Toxicol 2014; 64: 10-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.11.014
  20. Nakamaru K, Matsumoto K, Taguchi T, Suefuji M, Murata Y, Igata M, Kawashima J, Kondo T, Motoshima H, Tsuruzoe K, Miyamura N, Toyonaga T, Araki E. AICAR, an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase, down-regulates the insulin receptor expression in HepG2 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 328(2): 449-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.01.004
  21. Lee JS, Kang YH, Kim KK, Lim JG, Kim TW, Choe M. Characteristics and antioxidative activity of fermented mixed grain beverages produced by different microbial species. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013; 42(8): 1175-1182. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.8.1175
  22. Kim DJ, Kim JM, Kim TH, Baek JM, Kim HS, Choe M. Anti-diabetic effects of mixed extracts from Lycium chinense, Cordyceps militaris, and Acanthopanax senticosus. Korean J Plant Resour 2010; 23(5): 423-429.
  23. Nordlie RC, Foster JD, Lange AJ. Regulation of glucose production by the liver. Annu Rev Nutr 1999; 19: 379-406. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.19.1.379
  24. Jang EH, Ko JH, Ahn CW, Lee HH, Shin JK, Chang SJ, Park CS, Kang JH. In vivo and in vitro application of black soybean peptides in the amelioration of endoplasmic reticulum stress and improvement of insulin resistance. Life Sci 2010; 86(7-8): 267-274. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2009.12.012
  25. Hwang SH, Choi SJ, Hwang YS, Lim SS. Comparison analysis of essential oils composition in difference parts from Lindera obtusiloba BL. according to the season by gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Korean J Pharmacogn 2013; 44(1): 30-40.
  26. Kim HS, Kim TW, Kim DJ, Lee JS, Kim KK, Choe M. Antioxidant activities and $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory effect of water extracts from medicinal plants. Korean J Med Crop Sci 2013; 21 (3): 197-203. https://doi.org/10.7783/KJMCS.2013.21.3.197
  27. Lee SE, Seong NS, Bang JK, Park CG, Sung JS, Song J. Antioxidative activities of Korean medicinal plants. Korean J Med Crop Sci 2003; 11(2): 127-134.
  28. Kang JR, Lee SJ, Kwon HJ, Kwon MH, Sung NJ. Establishment of extraction conditions for the optimization of the black garlic antioxidant activity using the response surface methodology. Korean J Food Preserv 2012; 19(4): 577-585. https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2012.19.4.577
  29. Hwang EY, Kim DH, Kim HJ, Hwang JY, Park TS, Lee IS, Son JH. Antioxidant activities and nitric oxide production of medicine plants in Gyeongsangbukdo (Carthamus tinctorius seed, Cyperus rotundus, Schizonepeta tenuifolia, Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum, Paeonia lactiflora). J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 2011; 54(3): 171-177. https://doi.org/10.3839/jabc.2011.029
  30. Kim DI, Hong JH. Optimization of ethanol extraction conditions for functional components from Lespedeza cuneata using response surface methodology. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 2012; 28(3): 275-283. https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2012.28.3.275
  31. Jeong JE, Shim SP, Jeong YS, Jung HK, Kim YC, Hong JH. Optimization of extraction conditions for ethanol extracts from Citrus unshiu peel by response surface methodology. Korean J Food Preserv 2011; 18(5): 755-763. https://doi.org/10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.755
  32. Joo N, Kim B, Kim AJ. The Optimization of jelly with blueberry juice using response surface methodology. Korean J Food Nutr 2012; 25(1): 17-25. https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2012.25.1.017
  33. Jung KI, Cho EK. Adding germinated brown rice soaked in a mycelial culture broth of Phellinus linteus to muffins: an assessment using the response surface methodology. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2011; 40(6): 892-902. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2011.40.6.892
  34. Nepom GT. A unified hypothesis for the complex genetics of HLA associations with IDDM. Diabetes 1990; 39(10): 1153-1157 https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.39.10.1153
  35. Zhang YL, Tan XH, Xiao MF, Li H, Mao YQ, Yang X, Tan HR. Establishment of liver specific glucokinase gene knockout mice: a new animal model for screening anti-diabetic drugs. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2004; 25(12): 1659-1665.
  36. Kim DJ, Kim JM, Kim TH, Baek JM, Kim HS, Choe M. Effects of mixed extract from Lycium chinense, Cordyceps militaris and Acantopanax senticosus on glucose-regulationg enzymes of HepG2 in hyperglycemic conditions. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2010; 39(9): 1257-1262. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2010.39.9.1257
  37. Kim HS, Kim TW, Kim DJ, Kim KK, Choe M. Effects of medicinal plant water extracts on expression of anti-diabetic enzymes mRNA. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013; 42(7): 1008-1014. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.7.1008
  38. Kim HS, Kim TW, Kim DJ, Lee JS, Choe M. Effects of medicinal herb water extracts on expression of hepatic glucokinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA. Korean J Nutr 2013; 46(2): 119-125. https://doi.org/10.4163/kjn.2013.46.2.119
  39. Moore MC, Coate KC, Winnick JJ, An Z, Cherrington AD. Regulation of hepatic glucose uptake and storage in vivo. Adv Nutr 2012; 3(3): 286-294. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.112.002089
  40. Cherrington AD. Banting Lecture 1997. Control of glucose uptake and release by the liver in vivo. Diabetes 1999; 48(5): 1198-1214 https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.48.5.1198