DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Feasibility of Composting Combinations of Sewage Sludge, Cattle Manure, and Sawdust in a Rotary Drum Reactor

Nayak, Ashish Kumar;Kalamdhad, Ajay S.

  • Received : 2013.09.27
  • Accepted : 2014.01.15
  • Published : 2014.03.30

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to study the effect of five different waste combinations (C/N 15, C/N 20, C/N 25, C/N 30, and control) of sewage sludge coupled with sawdust and cattle manure in a pilot scale rotary drum reactor, during 20 days of the composting process. Our results showed that C/N 30 possesses a higher temperature regime with higher % reduction in moisture content, total organic carbon, soluble biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand; and higher % gain in total nitrogen and phosphorus at the end of the composting period implying the total amount of biodegradable organic material is stabilized. In addition, $CO_2$ evolution and oxygen uptake rate decreased during the process, reflecting the stable behavior of the final compost. A Solvita maturity index of 8 indicated that the compost was stable and ready for usage as a soil conditioner. The results indicated that composting can be an alternate technology for the management of sewage sludge disposal.

Keywords

Composting;C/N ratio;Rotary drum;Sewage sludge;Stability

References

  1. Ahlberg G, Gustafsson O, Wedel P. Leaching of metals from sewage sludge during one year and their relationship to particle size. Environ. Pollut. 2006;144:545-553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.01.022
  2. Khwairakpam M, Bhargava R. Vermitechnology for sewage sludge recycling. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;161:948-954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.04.088
  3. Paredes C, Roig A, Bernal MP, Sanchez-Monedero MA, Cegarra J. Evolution of organic matter and nitrogen during co-composting of olive mill wastewater with solid organic wastes. Biol. Fertil. Soils 2000;32:222-227. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740000239
  4. Tuomela M, Vikman M, Hatakka A, Itavaara M. Biodegradation of lignin in a compost environment: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 2000;72:169-183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00104-2
  5. Finstein MS. Composting in the context of municipal solid waste management. In: Mitchell R, ed. Environmental microbiology. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1992. p. 355-374.
  6. Kalamdhad AS, Kazmi AA. Effects of C/N ratio on mixed organic waste composting in a rotary drum composter. Int. J. Environ. Eng. 2009;1:187-207. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEE.2009.027314
  7. Eftoda G, McCartney D. Determining the critical bulking agent requirement for municipal biosolids composting. Compost Sci. Util. 2004;12:208-218. https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2004.10702185
  8. Tang JC, Inoue Y, Yasuta T, Yoshida S, Katayama A. Chemical and microbial properties of various compost products. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 2003;49:273-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.2003.10410007
  9. Vuorinen AH, Saharinen MH. Evolution of microbiological and chemical parameters during manure and straw co-composting in a drum composting system. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 1997;66:19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8809(97)00069-8
  10. Mohee R, Mudhoo A. Analysis of the physical properties of an in-vessel composting matrix. J. Powder Technol. 2005;155:92-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.powtec.2005.05.051
  11. Aboulam S, Morvan B, Revel JC. Use of a rotating-drum pilot plant to model the composting of household waste on an industrial scale. Compost Sci. Util. 2006;14:184-190. https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2006.10702282
  12. Kalamdhad AS, Kazmi AA. Mixed organic waste composting using rotary drum composter. Int. J. Environ. Waste Manag. 2008;2:24-36. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEWM.2008.016989
  13. Tyler M, Diddy S, Germain JS, Lombard S, Nightingale D. Interim guidelines for compost quality. Olympia: Washington State Department of Ecology; 1994.
  14. Kalamdhad AS, Pasha M, Kazmi AA. Stability evaluation of compost by respiration techniques in a rotary drum composter. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2008;52:829-834. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.12.003
  15. Lasaridi KE, Stentiford EI. A simple respirometric technique for assessing compost stability. Water Res. 1998;32:3717-3723. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00143-2
  16. Federal Compost Quality Assurance Organization. Methods book for the analysis of compost-in addition with the results of the parallel interlaboratory test 1993. Stuttgart: Federal Compost Quality Assurance Organization ; 1994.
  17. Cornell Waste Management Institute. Calculate C/N ratio for three materials [Internet]. Ithaca: Cornell University; c1996 [cited 2014 Jan 15]. Available from: http://compost.css.cornell. edu/calc/2.html.
  18. Tiquia SM, Tam NF. Fate of nitrogen during composting of chicken litter. Environ. Pollut. 2000;110:535-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00319-X
  19. Mohee R, Driver MF, Sobratee N. Transformation of spent broiler litter from exogenous matter to compost in a subtropical context. Bioresour. Technol. 2008;99:128-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2006.11.040
  20. Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Trussell RR. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 17th ed. Washington: American Public Health Association; 1989.
  21. Cabanas-Vargas DD, Sanchez-Monedero MA, Urpilainen ST, Kamilaki A, Stentiforg EI. Assessing the stability and maturity of compost at large-scale plants. Ingenieria 2005;9:25-30.
  22. Hassen A, Belguith K, Jedidi N, Cherif A, Cherif M, Boudabous A. Microbial characterization during composting of municipal solid waste. Bioresour. Technol. 2001;80:217-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00065-7
  23. Huang GF, Wong JW, Wu QT, Nagar BB. Effect of C/N on composting of pig manure with sawdust. Waste Manag. 2004;24:805-813. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2004.03.011
  24. Liao PH, Jones L, Lau AK, Walkemeyer S, Egan B, Holbek N. Composting of fish wastes in a full-scale in-vessel system. Bioresour. Technol. 1996;59:163-168.
  25. Haimi J, Hutha V. Capacity of various organic residues to support adequate earthworm biomass in vermicomposting. Biol. Fertil. Soils 1986;2:23-27. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00638957
  26. Ko HJ, Kim KY, Kim HT, Kim CN, Umeda M. Evaluation of maturity parameters and heavy metal contents in composts made from animal manure. Waste Manag. 2008;28:813-820. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2007.05.010
  27. Garg P, Gupta A, Satya S. Vermicomposting of different types of waste using Eisenia foetida: a comparative study. Bioresour. Technol. 2006;97:391-395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.03.009
  28. Rao Bhamidimarri SM, Pandey SP. Aerobic thermophilic composting of piggery solid wastes. Water Sci. Technol. 1996;33:89-94.
  29. Zucconi F, Monaco A, Forte M, de Bertoldi M. Phytotoxins during the stabilization of organic matter. In: Gasser JK, ed. Composting of agricultural and other wastes. London: Elsevier Applied Science; 1985. p. 73-86.
  30. Morisaki N, Phae CG, Nakasaki K, Shoda M, Kubota H. Nitrogen transformation during thermophilic composting. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 1989;67:57-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/0922-338X(89)90087-1
  31. Sanchez-Monedero MA, Roig A, Paredes C, Bernal MP. Nitrogen transformation during organic waste composting by the Rutgers system and its effects on pH, EC and maturity of the composting mixtures. Bioresour. Technol. 2001;78:301-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00031-1
  32. Amir S, Hafidi M, Merlina G, Revel JC. Sequential extraction of heavy metals during composting of sewage sludge. Chemosphere 2005;59:801-810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.016
  33. Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization. Manual on municipal solid waste management. New Delhi: Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization; 2000.
  34. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Guidelines for compost quality. Manitoba: Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment; 1996.

Cited by

  1. in faecal sludge compost vol.13, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.2166/wpt.2018.018