DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Impact of Irradiation Time on the Hydrolysis of Waste Activated Sludge by the Dielectric Heating of Microwave

Byun, Imgyu;Lee, Jaeho;Lim, Jisung;Lee, Jeongmin;Park, Taejoo

  • Received : 2013.10.29
  • Accepted : 2014.01.06
  • Published : 2014.03.30

Abstract

The effects of initial solid concentration and microwave irradiation (MWI) time on the hydrolysis of waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated. MWI time strongly influenced WAS hydrolysis for all initial solid concentrations of 8.20, 31.51, and 52.88 g VSS/L. For all WAS, the volatile suspended solids (VSS) solubilization degree ranged from 35.6% to 38.4% during a total MWI time of 10 min. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) concentration increased at a rate proportional to the decrease of VSS during the MWI. However, the clearly different VSS solubilization patterns that were observed during the MWI were explained by the 2-step hydrolysis of WAS, consisting of the initial disintegration of the easily degradable part of the sludge, followed by the subsequent disintegration of the hardly degradable part of the sludge. WAS hydrolysis rates for 3 to 6 min of MWI were significantly lower than those for less than 3 min, or more than 6 min. From these results, 3 min MWI time and WAS of 31.51 g VSS/L (centrifugal thickener WAS) showed the most efficient hydrolysis of WAS at 36.0%. The profiles of total nitrogen (T-N) concentrations corresponded well to the SCOD increases in terms of the empirical formula of bacterial cell mass ($C_5H_7O_2N$). The negligible T-N increase and pH decrease during WAS hydrolysis by MWI will allow the application of this process to subsequent biological processes, such as anaerobic digestion.

Keywords

Hydrolysis;Microwave irradiation time;SCOD;Solid concentration;Waste activated sludge

References

  1. Flemming HC, Wingender J. Relevance of microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs): Part I. Structural and ecological aspects. Water Sci. Technol. 2001;43:1-8.
  2. Korea Ministry of Environment. White paper of environment 2012. Sejong: Ministry of Environment; 2013.
  3. Neyens E, Baeyens J. A review of thermal sludge pre-treatment processes to improve dewaterability. J. Hazard. Mater. 2003;98:51-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00320-5
  4. Appels L, Baeyens J, Degreve J, Dewil R. Principles and potential of anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 2008;34:755-781. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2008.06.002
  5. Vavilin VA, Lokshina LY. Modeling of volatile fatty acids degradation kinetics and evaluation of microorganism activity. Bioresour. Technol. 1996;57:69-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-8524(96)00052-1
  6. Chang CJ, Tyagi VK, Lo SL. Effects of microwave and alkali induced pretreatment on sludge solubilization and subsequent aerobic digestion. Bioresour. Technol. 2011;102:7633-7640. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.05.031
  7. O'Flaherty V, Collins G, Mahony T. The microbiology and biochemistry of anaerobic bioreactors with relevance to domestic sewage treatment. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 2006;5:39-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-005-5478-8
  8. Lin JG, Chang CN, Chang SC. Enhancement of anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by alkaline solubilization. Bioresour. Technol. 2007;62:85-90.
  9. Tanaka S, Kobayashi T, Kamiyama K, Signey Bildan ML. Effects of thermochemical pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge. Water Sci. Technol. 1997;35:209-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1223(97)88229-7
  10. Tyagi VK, Lo SL. Enhancement in mesophilic aerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by chemically assisted thermal pretreatment method. Bioresour. Technol. 2012;119:105-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.05.134
  11. Weemaes M, Grootaerd H, Simons F, Verstraete W. Anaerobic digestion of ozonized biosolids. Water Res. 2000;34:2330-2336. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00373-5
  12. Pham TT, Brar SK, Tyagi RD, Surampalli RY. Ultrasonication of wastewater sludge: consequences on biodegradability and flowability. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009;163:891-898. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.07.091
  13. Weemaes MP, Verstraete WH. Evaluation of current wet sludge disintegration techniques. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 1998;73:83-92. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(1998100)73:2<83::AID-JCTB932>3.0.CO;2-2
  14. Tian Y, Zuo W, Ren Z, Chen D. Estimation of a novel method to produce bio-oil from sewage sludge by microwave pyrolysis with the consideration of efficiency and safety. Bioresour. Technol. 2011;102:2053-2061. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.082
  15. Adnadjevic BK, Jovanovic JD. A comparative kinetics study on the isothermal heterogeneous acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose under conventional and microwave heating. J. Mol. Catal. A Chem. 2012;356:70-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2011.12.027
  16. Mazo P, Rios L, Estenoz D, Sponton M. Self-esterification of partially maleated castor oil using conventional and microwave heating. Chem. Eng. J. 2012;185:347-351.
  17. Shibata C, Kashima T, Ohuchi K. Nonthermal influence of microwave power on chemical reactions. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1996;35:316-319. https://doi.org/10.1143/JJAP.35.316
  18. Wojciechowska E. Application of microwaves for sewage sludge conditioning. Water Res. 2005;39:4749-4754. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2005.09.032
  19. Eskicioglu C, Kennedy KJ, Droste RL. Characterization of soluble organic matter of waste activated sludge before and after thermal pretreatment. Water Res. 2006;40:3725-3736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.08.017
  20. Stuerga DA, Gaillard P. Microwave athermal effects in chemistry: a myth's autopsy. Part II. Orienting effects and thermodynamic consequences of electric field. J. Microw. Power Electromagn. Energy 1996;31:101-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/08327823.1996.11688300
  21. Hong SM, Park JK, Lee YO. Mechanisms of microwave irradiation involved in the destruction of fecal coliforms from biosolids. Water Res. 2004;38:1615-1625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2003.12.011
  22. Solyom K, Mato RB, Perez-Elvira SI, Cocero MJ. The influence of the energy absorbed from microwave pretreatment on biogas production from secondary wastewater sludge. Bioresour. Technol. 2011;102:10849-10854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.052
  23. Woo IS, Rhee IK, Park HD. Differential damage in bacterial cells by microwave radiation on the basis of cell wall structure. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000;66:2243-2247. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.66.5.2243-2247.2000
  24. Imbierowicz M, Chacuk A. Kinetic model of excess activated sludge thermohydrolysis. Water Res. 2012;46:5747-5755. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.07.051
  25. Collin RE. Foundations for microwave engineering. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1992.
  26. Ahn JH, Shin SG, Hwang S. Effect of microwave irradiation on the disintegration and acidogenesis of municipal secondary sludge. Chem. Eng. J. 2009;153:145-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2009.06.032
  27. Uma Rani R, Adish Kumar S, Kaliappan S, Yeom I, Rajesh Banu J. Impacts of microwave pretreatments on the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of dairy waste activated sludge. Waste Manag. 2013;33:1119-1127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.01.016
  28. Eskicioglu C, Prorot A, Marin J, Droste RL, Kennedy KJ. Synergetic pretreatment of sewage sludge by microwave irradiation in presence of H2O2 for enhanced anaerobic digestion. Water Res. 2008;42:4674-4682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.08.010
  29. Jones DA, Lelyveld TP, Mavrofidis SD, Kingman SW, Miles NJ. Microwave heating applications in environmental engineering: a review. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2002;34:75-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-3449(01)00088-X
  30. Park WJ, Ahn JH, Hwang S, Lee CK. Effect of output power, target temperature, and solid concentration on the solubilization of waste activated sludge using microwave irradiation. Bioresour. Technol. 2010;101 Suppl 1:S13-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.02.062
  31. Yu Q, Lei H, Li Z, et al. Physical and chemical properties of waste-activated sludge after microwave treatment. Water Res. 2010;44:2841-2849. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.11.057
  32. Cho SK, Shin HS, Kim DH. Waste activated sludge hydrolysis during ultrasonication: two-step disintegration. Bioresour. Technol. 2012;121:480-483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.07.024
  33. Eaton AD, Clesceri LS, Rice EW, Greenberg AE. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st ed. Washington: American Public Health Association; 2005.
  34. Eskicioglu C, Kennedy KJ, Droste RL. Enhancement of batch waste activated sludge digestion by microwave pretreatment. Water Environ. Res. 2007;79:2304-2317. https://doi.org/10.2175/106143007X184069
  35. Park WJ, Ahn JH, Lee CK. Effect of temperature-increase rate and terminal temperature on the solubilization of sewage sludge using microwave irradiation. Environ. Eng. Res. 2009;14:48-52. https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2009.14.1.048
  36. Melbinger NR, Donnellon J, Zablatzky HR. Toxic effect of ammonia nitrogen in high rate digestion. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 1971;43:1658-1670.
  37. Yenigun O, Demirel B. Ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion: a review. Process Biochem. 2013;48:901-911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2013.04.012

Cited by

  1. The Effect of Strong Acid and Ionic Material Addition in the Microwave-assisted Solubilization of Waste Activated Sludge vol.37, pp.1, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4491/KSEE.2015.37.1.60
  2. A Study of Full Scale PUV/US Hybrid System for Contaminant Treatment in Groundwater vol.39, pp.10, 2017, https://doi.org/10.4491/KSEE.2017.39.10.575

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Pusan National University