Relative Apoptosis-inducing Potential of Homeopathic Condurango 6C and 30C in H460 Lung Cancer Cells In vitro -Apoptosis-induction by homeopathic Condurango in H460 cells-

  • Sikdar, Sourav (Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani) ;
  • Saha, Santu Kumar (Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani) ;
  • Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman (Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani)
  • Received : 2013.11.07
  • Accepted : 2014.01.08
  • Published : 2014.03.31


Objectives: In homeopathy, it is claimed that more homeopathically-diluted potencies render more protective/curative effects against any disease condition. Potentized forms of Condurango are used successfully to treat digestive problems, as well as esophageal and stomach cancers. However, the comparative efficacies of Condurango 6C and 30C, one diluted below and one above Avogadro's limit (lacking original drug molecule), respectively, have not been critically analyzed for their cell-killing (apoptosis) efficacy against lung cancer cells in vitro, and signalling cascades have not been studied. Hence, the present study was undertaken. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were conducted on H460-non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells by using a succussed ethyl alcohol vehicle (placebo) as a control. Studies on cellular morphology, cell cycle regulation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and DNA-damage were made, and expressions of related signaling markers were studied. The observations were done in a "blinded" manner. Results: Both Condurango 6C and 30C induced apoptosis via cell cycle arrest at subG0/G1 and altered expressions of certain apoptotic markers significantly in H460 cells. The drugs induced oxidative stress through ROS elevation and MMP depolarization at 18-24 hours. These events presumably activated a caspase-3-mediated signalling cascade, as evidenced by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunofluorescence studies at a late phase (48 hours) in which cells were pushed towards apoptosis. Conclusion: Condurango 30C had greater apoptotic effect than Condurango 6C as claimed in the homeopathic doctrine.


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