DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Towards Conservation of Omani Local Chicken: Phenotypic Characteristics, Management Practices and Performance Traits

  • Al-Qamashoui, B. (Animal Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Kassel and Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen) ;
  • Mahgoub, O. (Sultan Qaboos University, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences) ;
  • Kadim, I. (Sultan Qaboos University, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences) ;
  • Schlecht, E. (Animal Husbandry in the Tropics and Subtropics, University of Kassel and Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen)
  • Received : 2013.09.02
  • Accepted : 2013.12.17
  • Published : 2014.06.01

Abstract

Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05). A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05), being $1.3{\pm}0.65$ kg and $1.1{\pm}0.86$ kg respectively. Flock size averaged $22{\pm}7.7$ birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was $12.3{\pm}2.85$ and annual production $64.5{\pm}2.85$ eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged $88{\pm}6.0%$ and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was $16{\pm}1.4%$. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations.

Keywords

Animal Genetic Resources;Egg Production;Rural Smallholders;Scavenging System;Task Division

References

  1. Adebayo, O. and R. Adeola. 2005. Socio-economic factors affecting poultry farmers in Ejigbo local government area of Osun State. J. Hum. Ecol. 18:39-41.
  2. Al-Qamashoui, B., H. Simianer, I. Kadim, and S. Weigend. 2014a. Assessment of genetic diversity and conservation priority of Omani local chickens using microsatellite markers. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. (In press)
  3. Al-Qamashoui, B., A. Al-Ansari, H. Simianer, S. Weigend, O. Mahgoub, V. Costa, A. Weigend, N. Al-Araimi, and A. Beja-Pereira. 2014b. From India to Africa across Arabia: An mtDNA assessment of the origins and dispersal of chicken around the Indian Ocean Rim. BMC Genetics (Submitted in Feb. 2014).
  4. Abdelqader, A., C. B. Wollny, and M. Gauly. 2007. Characterization of local chicken production systems and their potential under different levels of management practices in Jordan. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 39:155-164. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-007-9000-x
  5. Aini, I. 1990. Indigenous chicken production in South-East Asia. World Poult. Sci. J. 46:51-57. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19900010
  6. Archer, K. J. and S. Lemeshow. 2006. Goodness-of-fit test for a logistic regression model fitted using survey sample data. Stata J. 6:97-105.
  7. Badubi, S. S., M. Rakereng, and M. Marumo. 2006. Morphological characteristics and feed resources available for indigenous chickens in Botswana. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 18(3). http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd18/1/badu18003.htm. Accessed Mar. 2012.
  8. Daikwo, I., A. Okpe, and J. Ocheja. 2011. Phenotypic characterization of local chicken in Dekina. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 10:444-447. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2011.444.447
  9. Barua, A. and Y. Yoshimur. 1997. Rural poultry keeping in Bangladesh. World Poult. Sci. J. 53:387-394. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19970031
  10. Biagi, P. 2006. The shell-middens of the Arabian Sea and Persian Gulf: Maritime connections in the 7th Millennium BP. Adumatu 14:7-16.
  11. Boivin, N. and D.Q. Fuller. 2009. Shell middens, ships and seeds: Exploring coastal subsistence, maritime trade and the dispersal of domesticates in and around the ancient Arabian Peninsula. J. World Prehistory 22:113-180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10963-009-9018-2
  12. Dessie, T. and B. Ogle. 2001. Village poultry production systems in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 33:521-537. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1012740832558
  13. Egahi, J., N. Dim, O. Momoh, and D. Gwaza. 2010. Variations in qualitative traits in the Nigerian local chicken. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 10: 978-979.
  14. Fisseha, M. 2009. Studies on Production and Marketing Systems of Local Chicken Ecotypes in Bure Woreda, North-west Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. MSc thesis, Hawassa University, Ethiopia.
  15. Gondwe, T. 2004. Characterization of Local Chicken in Low Input-low Output Production Systems: Is There Scope for Appropriate Production and Breeding Strategies in Malawi? PhD thesis, Georg-August-Universitat Gottingen, Germany.
  16. Gueye, E. 2000. Women and family poultry production in Africa. Dev. Pract. 10: 98-102. https://doi.org/10.1080/09614520052565
  17. Hair, J. F., B. Black, B. Babin, R. E. Anderson, and R. L. Tatham. 2006. Multivariate Data Analysis, 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ USA, Pearson Prentice Hall.
  18. Hall, H. T. B. 1986. Diseases and Parasites of Livestock in the Tropics. 2nd ed. 328 p. Longman Group Ltd., Harlow, Essex, UK.
  19. Jens, R., P. Anders, V. Charlotte, M. Ainsh, and F. Lone. 2004. Keeping Village Poultry: A Technical Manual for Small-scale Poultry Production. Copenhagen, Denmark.
  20. Mapiye, C., M. Mwale, J. Mupangwa, M. Chimonyo, R. Foti, and M. Mutenje. 2008. A research review of village chicken production constraints and opportunities in Zimbabwe. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 21:1680-1688.
  21. Jugessur, V., M. Pillay, R. Ramnauth, and M. Allas. 2006. The socio-economic importance of family poultry production in the republic of Mauritius. In: Improving Farmyard Poultry Production in Africa: Interventions and Their Economic Assessment, pp. 164-178. Vienna, IAEA-TECDOC-1489.
  22. Kondombo, S., A. Nianogo, R. Kwakkel, H. Udo, and M. Slingerland. 2003. Comparative analysis of village chicken production in two farming systems in Burkina Faso. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 35:563-574. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1027336610764
  23. Mandleni, B. and F. Anim. 2012. Climate change and adaptation of small-scale cattle and sheep farmers. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 7: 2639-2646.
  24. Mcainsh, C., J. Kusina, J. Madsen, and O. Nyoni. 2004. Traditional chicken production in Zimbabwe. World Poult. Sci. J. 60:233-246. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS20040018
  25. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MOAF). 2008. Agricultural Annual Report. Muscat, Oman.
  26. Ministry of National Economy (MONE). 2010. Data and indicators of the population. Muscat, Oman.
  27. Mwalusanya, N., A. Katule, S. Mutayoba, M. Mtambo, J. Olsenand, and U. Minga. 2002. Productivity of local chicken under village management conditions. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 34:405-416. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020048327158
  28. Petrus, N., I. Mpofu, and E. Lutaaya. 2011. The care and management of indigenous chicken in Northern communal areas of Namibia. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 23(12). http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd23/12/petr23253.htm. Accessed Mar. 2012.
  29. Ramlah, A. 1996. Performance of village fowl in Malaysia. World Poult Sci. J. 52:76-79.
  30. Sainsbury, D. 1992. Poultry health and management - chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, quail. 3rd ed. 216 p. Blackwell Scientific Ltd, Oxford, UK.
  31. Ssewannyana, E., A. Ssali, T. Kasadha, M. Dhikusooka, P. Kasoma, J. Kalema, B. Kwatotyo, and L. Aziku. 2008. On-farm characterization of indigenous chicken in Uganda. J. Anim Plant Sci. 1:33-37.
  32. Van Kampen, M. 1974. Physical factors affecting energy expenditure. In: Energy Requirements of Poultry (Eds. T. R. Morris and B. M. Freeman). pp. 47-59. Longman Group Ltd., Edinburgh, UK.
  33. Yakubu, A., D. Kuje, and M. Okpeku. 2009. Principal components as measures of size and shape in Nigerian indigenous chicken. Thai J. Agric. Sci. 42:167-176.