DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Levels of Supplementation for Grazing Beef Heifers

  • Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino (Departamento de Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV)) ;
  • Paulino, Mario Fonseca (Departamento de Zootecnia, Researchers of INCT-CA, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV)) ;
  • Detmann, Edenio (Departamento de Zootecnia, Researchers of INCT-CA, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV)) ;
  • de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastiao (Departamento de Zootecnia, Researchers of INCT-CA, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV)) ;
  • de Barros, Livia Vieira (Departamento de Zootecnia, Researchers of INCT-CA, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV)) ;
  • Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa (Departamento de Zootecnia, Researchers of INCT-CA, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV)) ;
  • de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela (Departamento de Engenharia Rural, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES)) ;
  • Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino (Faculdade de Agronomia, Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT))
  • Received : 2013.09.03
  • Accepted : 2013.12.16
  • Published : 2014.06.01

Abstract

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain.

Keywords

Nutritional Parameters;Protein Supplement;Weight Gain

References

  1. Barros, L. V., M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, E. Detmann, F. G. Silva, É. E. L. Valente, S. A. Lopes, and L. S. Martins. 2011b. Replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal 38% in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:852-859.
  2. Barbosa, A. M., R. F. D. Valadares, S. C. Valadares Filho, D. S. Pina, E. Detmann, and M. I. Leao. 2011. Endogenous fraction and urinary recovery of purine derivatives obtained by different methods in Nellore cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 89:510-519. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2009-2366
  3. Barbosa, M. A. A. F., D. Nascimento Jr., and U. Cecato. 2006. Pasture dynamic and performance of steers in Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia under different forage allowances. R. Bras. Zootec. 35:1594-1600. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982006000600004
  4. Barros, L. V., M. F. Paulino, E. Detman, S. C. Valadares Filho, S. A. Lopes, A. A. Rocha, E. E. L. Valente, and D. M. Almeida. 2011a. Replacement of soybean meal by treated castor meal in supplements for grazing heifer during the dry-rainy season period. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:843-851. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982011000400019
  5. Cabral, C. H. A., M. O. Bauer, R. C. Carvalho, C. E. A. Cabral, and W. B. Cabral. 2011. Steers performance and economical viability supplemented in the rainy season. Rev. Caatinga. 24:173-181.
  6. Cabral, L. S., S. C. Valadares Filho, E. Detmann, P. A. M. Malafaia, J. T. Zervoudakis, A. L. Souza, R. G. Veloso, and P. M. M. Nunes. 2006.Intake and digestibility in cattle fed tropical forage based diets. R. Bras. Zootec. 35:2406-2412. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982006000800029
  7. Detmann, E. and S. C. Valadares Filho. 2010. On the estimation of non-fibrous carbohydrates in feeds and diets. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 62:980-984. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-09352010000400030
  8. Chen, X. B. and M. J. Gomes. 1992. Estimation of microbial protein supply to sheep and cattle basid on urinary excretion of purine derivatives - an overview of the technical details. International Feed Resources Unit, Rowett Research Institute, Ocasional Publication, Ed. Buchsburnd Aberdeen, UK. p. 21.
  9. Chizzotti, M. L., S. C. Valadares Filho, R. F. Valadares, F. H. M. Chizzotti, J. M. S. Campos, M. I. Marcondes, and M. A. Fonseca. 2006. Intake, digestibility and urinary excretion of urea and purine derivatives in heifers with different body weights. R. Bras. Zootec. 35:1813-1821. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982006000600032
  10. Couto, V. R. M., M. F. Paulino, E. Detmann, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. F. L. Sales, L. V. Barros, M. O. Porto, and E. E. L. Valente. 2010. Energy sources and supplementation levels for beef heifers raised during the dry season. R. Bras. Zootec. 39:2494-2501. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010001100024
  11. Detmann, E., M. F. Paulino, and S. C. Valadares Filho. 2010. Optimizing the use for basal forage resources. In: Symposium of Beef Cattle Production. 7. International Symposium of Beef Cattle Production, 3. University Federal of Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil. pp. 191-240.
  12. Detmann, E., M. F. Paulino, H. C. Mantovani, S. C. Valadares Filho, C. B. Sampaio, M. A. Souza, I. Lazzarini, and K. S. C. Detmann. 2009. Parameterization of ruminal fiber degradation in low-quality tropical forage using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Livest. Sci. 126:136-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2009.06.013
  13. Detmann, E., A. C. Queiroz, P. R. Cecon, J. T. Zervoudakis, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, L. S. Cabral, and R. P. Lana. 2003. Neutral detergent fiber intake by feedlot cattle. R. Bras. Zootec. 32:1763-1777. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982003000700027
  14. Detmann, E., M. F. Paulino, J. T. Zervoudakis, S. C. Valadares Filho, R. F. Euclydes, R. P. Lana, and D. S. Queiroz. 2001. Chromium and internal markers in intake determination by crossbred steers, supplemented at pasture. R. Bras. Zootec. 30:1600-1609. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982001000600030
  15. Johnson, A. D. 1978. Sample preparation and chemical analisys of vegetation. In: Measurement of Grassland Vegetation and Animal Production (Ed. L. T. Manejte). Aberustwysth: Commonweath Agricultural Bureax, p.96-102.
  16. Figueiras, J. F., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, T. N. P. Valente, S. C. Valadares Filho, and I. Lazzarini. 2010. Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing supplemented with nitrogenous compounds during dry season. R. Bras. Zootec. 39:1303-1312. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010000600020
  17. Forbes, J. M. 2003. The multifactorial nature of food intake control. J. Anim. Sci. 81:E139-E144.
  18. Illius, A. W. and N. S. Jessop. 1996. Metabolic Constraints on voluntary intake in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 74:3052-3062.
  19. Lazzarini, I. 2011. Nutritional Performance of Cattle under Grazing during Dry and Rainy Seasons Supplemented with Nitrogenous Compounds and/or Starch. Ph.D. Thesis. University Federal of Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil. p. 66.
  20. Lazzarini, I., E. Detmann, C. B. Sampaio, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. A. Souza, and F. A. Oliveira. 2009. Intake and digestibility in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogenous compounds. R. Bras. Zootec. 38:2021-2030. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982009001000024
  21. Leng, R. A. 1990. Factors affecting the utilization of "poor-quality" forages by ruminants particularly under tropical conditions. Nut. Res. Review. 3:277-303. https://doi.org/10.1079/NRR19900016
  22. Licitra, G., T. M. Hernandez, and P. J. Van Soest. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:347-358. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00837-3
  23. Maquivar, M., and M. L. Day. 2009. Nutritional regulation of puberty. In: Course New Approaches of Production and Reproduction of Cattle, 13. Uberlandia, MG, Brazil. Uberlandia: UNESP. pp. 143-158.
  24. Moraes, A. L. 2010. Performance of Nelore Heifers Subjected to Levels of crude protein in the rainy-dry transition period. (Master's Thesis). 55 p. University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
  25. National Research Council (NRC). 2001. Nutrients Requirements of Dairy Cattle. National Academy Press. Washington, DC, p. 381.
  26. Moraes, E. H. B. K., M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, K. A. K. Moraes, E. Detmann, and M. G. Souza. 2010. Nutritional evaluation of supplementation strategies for beef cattle during the dry season. R. Bras. Zootec. 39:608-616. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982010000300021
  27. Moraes, E. H. B. K., M. F. Paulino, K. A. K. Moraes, S. C. Valadares Filho, J. T. Zervoudakis, and E. Detmann. 2009. Urea in protein-energy supplements for beef cattle during the dry season: nutritional and ruminal traits. R. Bras. Zootec. 38:770-777.
  28. Mertens, D. R. 2002. Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds with refluxing in beaker or crucibles: collaborative study. J. AOAC Internat. 85:1217-1240.
  29. Paulino, M. F., E. Detmann, and S. C. Valadares Filho. 2008. Functional cattle in the tropics. In: Symposium of Beef Cattle Production, 6. International Symposium of Beef Cattle Production, 2. University Federal of Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil. pp. 275-305.
  30. Paulino, M. F., D. M. Figueiredo, E. H. B. K. Moraes, M. O. Porto, M. F. L. Sales, T. S. Acedo, S. D. J. Villela, and S. C. Valadares Filho. 2004. Supplementation of cattle in pastures: a systemic view. In: Symposium of Beef Cattle Production, 4. University Federal of Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil. pp. 93-139.
  31. Poppi, D. P. and S. R. McLennan. 1995. Protein and energy utilization by ruminants at pasture. J. Anim. Sci. 73:278-290.
  32. Rigolon, L. P., I. N. Prado, F. L. B. Cavalieri, J. A. Negrao, R. R. Silva, and J. A. Marques. 2008. Levels of dry matter intake on metabolites and hormones plasmatic and follicular hormones in beef heifers. Rev. Bras. Saude Prod. An. 9:367-383.
  33. Sa Filho, M. F., L. U. Gimenes, J. N. S. Sales, G. A. Crepaldi, A. G. Medalha, and P. S. Baruselli. 2008. Artificial insemination in heifers. In: International Symposium on Applied Animal Reproduction, 3. State University of Londrina , Londrina, PR, Brazil. pp. 54-67.
  34. Semmelmann, C. E. N., J. F. P. Lobato, and M. G. Rocha. 2001. Effect of feeding systems on weight gain and reproductive performance of Nellore heifers bred at the age of 17/18 months. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 30:835-843. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982001000300032
  35. Sampaio, C. B., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. A. Souza, I. Lazzarini, P. V. Paulino, and A. C. Queiroz. 2010. Intake and digestibility in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogenous compounds. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 42:1471-1479. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9581-7
  36. Sampaio, C. B., E. Detmann, I. Lazzarini, M. A. Souza, M. F. Paulino, and S. C. Valadares Filho. 2009. Rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogenous compounds. R. Bras. Zootec. 38:560-569. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-35982009000300023
  37. Santos, J. E. and M. Amstalden. 1998. Effects of nutrition on bovine reproduction. In: Arq. Facul. Vet. 26. Atibaia, SP, Brazil. pp. 19-79.
  38. Silva, D. J. and A. C. Queiroz. 2002. Food analysis: Chemical and biological methods. University Federal of Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil. p. 235.
  39. Souza, M. A., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, C. B. Sampaio, I. Lazzarini, and S. C. Valadares Filho. 2010. Intake, digestibility and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogen and/or starch. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 42:1299-1310. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9566-6
  40. Titgemeyer, E. C, C. K. Armendariz, D. J. Bindel, R. H. Greenwood, and C. A. Loest. 2001. Evaluation of titanium dioxide as a digestibility marker for cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1059-1063.
  41. Valadares, R. F. D., L. C. Gonçalves, I. B. Sampaio, N. M. Rodriguez, and J. F. C. Silva. 1997. Protein levels in cattle diet. 2. Intake, digestibilities and nitrogen balance. R. Bras. Zootec. 26:1259-1263.
  42. Williams, C. H., D. J. David, and O. Iisma. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in faeces samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. J. Agric. Sci. 59:381-385. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002185960001546X
  43. Valadares, R. F. D., G. A. Broderick, S. C. Valadares Filho, and M. K. Clayton. 1999. Effect of replacing alfalfa silage with high moisture corn on ruminal protein synthesis estimated from excretion of total purine derivatives. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2686-2696. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75525-6
  44. Valadares Filho, S. C., M. I. Marcondes, M. L. Chizzotti, and P. V. R. Paulino. 2010. Nutritional requirements of pure and crossbred zebu BR-CORTE. University Federal of Vicosa , Vicosa, MG, Brazil. p. 193.
  45. Valente, E. E. L., M. F. Paulino, E. Detmann, S. C. Valadares Filho, L. V. Barros, T. S. Acedo, V. R. M. Couto, and S. A. Lopes. 2011. Levels of multiple supplements or nitrogen salt for beef heifers in pasture during the dry season. R. Bras. Zootec. 40:2011-2019.

Cited by

  1. Avaliação bioeconômica de estratégias de suplementação de novilhos zebuínos mantidos em pastagens diferidas de capim-marandu no período seco vol.17, pp.3, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-99402016000300012
  2. Effect of concentrate level on enteric methane emissions, production performance, and rumen fermentation of Jersey cows grazing kikuyu-dominant pasture during summer vol.101, pp.11, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-14327
  3. The Use of Castor Meal, a by-Product of the Biodiesel Industry, in a Beef Production System in Tropical Pastures vol.18, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1515/aoas-2017-0044
  4. Morphological characteristics, nutritive quality, and methane production of tropical grasses in Brazil vol.53, pp.3, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-204x2018000300007