Effects of Brown Rice and Brown Rice Powder Mixing Ratio on the Preference Analysis of the Waffles and Rice Ball

현미와 현미분말 첨가량에 따른 현미와플 및 주먹밥의 소비자 기호도 조사

  • Received : 2013.12.02
  • Accepted : 2014.03.14
  • Published : 2014.04.30


This study surveyed consumers' sensory liking ratings of 3 types of developed brown rice products (brown rice nut waffles, Kimchi and tuna rice ball, sweet red-bean paste rice ball) and analyzed the drivers for liking or disliking the brown rice products. Each brown rice product had a brown rice to brown rice powder ratio of either: 100:0; 80:20; or 50:50. Forty consumers evaluated the acceptance of brown rice products on a 9-point hedonic scale and gave comments regarding liking or disliking each product. The results of the preference investigation analysis showed subjectivity depending on the brown rice product and the respondents' genders and ages. For brown rice nut waffles was affected by gender, age, and brown rice powder mixing ratio (p < 0.05). The variables "liking the aroma"; "liking the delicate flavor"; "liking the chewiness"; "liking the moistness"; "liking the softness"; "liking the harmony"; "liking the aftertaste" and "overall acceptability" did not differ significantly with the Kimchi and tuna rice ball. For the sweet red-bean paste rice ball product, the rates of liking the chewiness, stickiness, moistness, and softness of the 0% brown rice powder mix were all higher (p < 0.05) than were the rates of liking those same qualities in the 50% brown rice powder mix. Among all brown rice products, there were high correlations between the overall acceptability, liking the saltiness, liking the aroma, and liking the harmony. A preference investigation analysis showed that the brown rice product fillings were key factors to the products' overall acceptability.


Supported by : 농림축산식품부


  1. Bae YM, Lee SY. 2010. Effect of microwave treatment and packaging methods on extending the shelf-life of RTE rice balls at room temperature. Korean J Food Cook Sci 26(2):165-170
  2. Bamick M, Szafranska J. 1987. Changes in phytate content and phytase activity during the germination of some cereals. J Cereal Sci 5(1):23-28
  3. Choi ID. 2010. Fatty acids, amino acids and thermal properties of specialty rice cultivars. Korean J Soc Food Sci Nutr 39(9):1405-1409
  4. Choi JH. 2001. Quality characteristics of the bread with sprouted brown rice flour. Korean J Food Cook Sci 17(2):323-328
  5. Choi SN, Chung NY, Kim HJ. 2013. Quality characteristics of waffle by adding brown rice flour. Korean J Food Cook Sci 29(1):47-52
  6. Doopedia. Waffle. Available form : Accessed october 7, 2013
  7. Jeong SY, Park MJ, Lee SY. 2011a. Physicochemical properties of Jeung-pyun dough containing with different amounts of brown rice. Korean J Food Cook Sci 27(2):9-17
  8. Jeong SY, Park MJ, Lee SY. 2011b. Quality characteristics of brown rice Jeung-pyun. Korean J Food Culture. 26(1):86-93
  9. Kim MJ, You BR, Lee JH, Kim MR. 2010. Effect of rice particle size on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of fish porridge. Korean J Food Preserv. 17(1):117-122
  10. Kim MS, Yang HI, Jeong YH. 2004. Mineral contents of brown and milled rice. Korean J Food Sci. Technol. 33(2):443-446
  11. Ko MR, Choi HJ, Han KB, Yoo SS, Kim HS, Choi SW, Hur NY, Kim CN, Kim BY, Baik MY. 2011. Antioxidative components and antioxidative capacity of brown and black rices. Food Engineering Progress. 15(3):195-202
  12. Lee NY. 2010. Preferences on take-out food for the establishment of small capital businesses. Masters degree thesis. Sookmyung Women's University. pp 11-67
  13. Lee MH, Oh MS. 2006. Quality characteristics of cookies with brown rice flour. Korean J Food Culture. 21(6):685-694
  14. Lee SM, Yoo SS. 2011. Quality characteristics of yakpyun by brown rice. Korean J Food Cook Sci 27(4):47-54
  15. Lee WJ, Jung JK. 2002. Quality characteristics and preparation of noodles from brown rice flour and colored rice flour. Korean J Culinary Res 8(3):267-278
  16. Lee YS, Kim AJ, Rho JO. 2008. Quality characteristics of sprouted brown rice Dasik with yujacheong add. Korean J Food Cook Sci 24(4):494-500
  17. Lim SY. 2008. Inhibitory effect of methanol extracts from Korean oryza sartiva and coix lachryma-jobi var. mayuen on mutagenicity and growth of human cancer cells, J. Life Sci 18(10):1415-1419
  18. Shin ES, Lee KA, Lee HK, Kim KBWR, Kim MJ, Byun MW, Lee JW, Kim JH, Ahn DH, Lyu ES. 2008. Effect of grain size and added water on quality characteristics of abalone porridge. J. korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 37(2): 245-250
  19. Song JS, Oh MS. 1992. Effect of cooking with pressure cooker and particle size of rice flour on quality characteristics of packsulgi. Korean J Soc Food Sci 8(3):233-239
  20. Steganie K, Jos M, Jan HAK. 2007. Differences in perception of sweet and savoury waffles between elderly and young subjects. Food Quality and Preference. 18(1): 106-116
  21. You RB, Kim MR. 2010. Effect of particle size of rice on physicochemical and nutritional properties of soybean porridge. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 20(1): 187-192

Cited by

  1. Phytate Reduction and Quality Characteristics of Brown Rice Inoculated with Phytate-degrading Lactic Acid Bacteria vol.30, pp.4, 2014,
  2. Quality Characteristics of Waffle added with Coconut Powder vol.26, pp.4, 2016,