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전통 된장의 숙성 기간에 따른 감각·화학적 품질특성

Quality Characteristics of Doenjang by Aging Period

  • Ku, Kyung-Hyung (Div. of Convergence Technology, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Park, Kyungmin (Div. of Convergence Technology, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, Hyun Jung (Div. of Convergence Technology, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Kim, Yoonsook (Div. of Convergence Technology, Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Koo, Minseon (Div. of Convergence Technology, Korea Food Research Institute)
  • 투고 : 2013.05.23
  • 심사 : 2014.03.28
  • 발행 : 2014.05.31

초록

본 연구는 장기 숙성된 우리 된장의 품질특성을 확인하기 위하여 숙성 기간이 다양한 된장을 수집하여 숙성 기간에 따른 이화학적, 미생물학적 품질특성과 감각적 특성 평가를 수행하였다. 1년 숙성부터 9년 숙성 된장의 수분, 조단백질, 조지방 등의 일반성분과 염도는 숙성 기간에 따른 차이가 거의 없었으며 숙성 기간에 따른 경향도 없었다. 또한 아플라톡신 생성 곰팡이 등 위해 미생물도 모든 시료에서 검출되지 않아서 미생물학적 안정성을 확인할 수 있었다. 아미노태질소 함량은 1년 숙성 된장이 1,052.5 mg%였으며, 2~5년 숙성 된장은 904.0~997.0 mg%였고 5년 이후 숙성된 된장은 1,219.5~1,307.0 mg%였다. 숙성 기간 동안 가장 큰 변화를 보인 것은 표면 색도였으며, 숙성 기간에 따라 밝기와 황색도가 감소하는 경향을 보여주었다. 콩에 포함된 필수지방산인 linoleic acid와 linolenic acid 함량비는 9년 숙성된 된장에서도 유지되어 전체 지방산의 55% 이상을 차지하였고, 된장의 주요 유리당인 fructose는 1.6~2.2% 범위였다. 이소플라본 조성은 메주에서는 glycoside 형태가 77.1%를 차지하였으나, 숙성 1년 된장부터는 aglycon 형태의 이소플라본만 검출되었고 genistein이 가장 높은 비율을 차지하였다. 숙성 기간별 된장의 정량적 묘사분석 결과, 숙성 기간에 따라 색도, 점도, 간장 냄새, 비린 냄새, 메주 냄새, 간장 맛 등의 변화가 있어서, 메주에서 오는 맛과 향은 숙성 기간의 증가에 따라 감소하지만 간장 맛과 향은 증가하는 경향을 보여주었다. 또한 숙성 기간별로 된장의 관능적 특징 유사성을 계층적 군집분석 실시한 결과, 숙성 기간에 따라 1~5년 그룹과 6~9년 된장으로 분류하였으며 5년 이하 숙성된 된장은 1년, 2년, 3~5년 숙성된 된장 그룹으로 나눠져 숙성기간별 관능적 품질특성에 차이가 있음을 확인하였다.

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