Clonal Propagation in Commiphora Wightii (Arnott.) Bhandari

  • Mishra, Dhruv Kumar ;
  • Kumar, Devendra
  • Received : 2013.03.13
  • Accepted : 2013.12.30
  • Published : 2014.05.31


Studies were carried out to standardize and develop a suitable macro-propagation technology for large scale production of superior clonal stock through stem cuttings in Commiphora wightii Arnott (Bhandari), a data deficient medicinal plant of arid region. For the purpose, three experiments were conducted. The first experiment was tried to elucidate the impact of various cutting diameters (0.50-0.75 cm, 0.75-1.00 cm, 1.00-1.50 cm, and >1.50 cm) in combination with varying growing conditions (sunlight, shade house and mist chamber) on shoot sprouting and rooting without using exogenous plant growth regulators. Cutting diameter (size 0.75-1.00 cm) in mist chamber has shown maximum sprouting (90.00%) and rooting (73.33%), primary root (6.67) and secondary root (16.67) followed by 1.00-1.51 cm in mist chamber. Minimum sprouting (40.00%), rooting (33.33%), number of shoot (1.33), primary root (1.00) and number of secondary root (1.00) was recorded in cutting diameter (size >1.50 cm) in sunlight. Second experiment was performed to find out optimum growth regulator concentration of rooting hormone (100, 200, 500 and 1000 ppm) of Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and Indole-3-butyric Acid (IBA) on adventitious root formation on cuttings diameter (size 0.25-0.50 cm) in comparison to control. Maximum rooting percentage (93.33%) was recorded in 200 ppm followed by 500 ppm (86.66%) of IBA as compared to control, which showed only 60 per cent sprouting. Third experiment was performed with newly formed juvenile micro-cuttings treated with varying concentrations of IAA and IBA. The juvenile cuttings (size 6-10 cm, basal dia <0.25 cm) were selected as micro-cuttings. The cuttings treated with IBA (500 ppm) showed 64.30% rooting as compared to other treatments. Results of above experiments indicate that cuttings (size 0.75-1.00 cm dia) may be developed in mist chamber for better performance. While using heavier cuttings, no growth promoting hormones is required however; growth regulator 200 ppm concentration of IBA rooting hormone was observed optimum for promoting macro-propagation in stem cuttings of lower diameter class (0.25-0.50 cm).


Commiphora wightii;stem cutting;thickness;plant growth regulators;adventitious roots


  1. Porlingis IC, Therios I. 1976. Rooting response of juvenile and adult leafy olive cuttings to various factors. J Hort Sci 51: 31-39.
  2. Wiesman Z, Riov J, Epstein E. 1989. Characterization and Rooting Ability of Indole-3-Butyric Acid Conjugates Formed during Rooting of Mung Bean Cuttings. P Physiol 91: 1080-1084.
  3. Xiao D, Singh SV. 2008. z-Guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cancer Ther 7: 171-180.
  4. Yadav BBL, Billore KV, Joseph TG, Chaturvedi DD. 1999. Cultivation of Guggulu. Central Council for Research and Siddha (CCRAS). New Delhi, pp 1-94.
  5. Ozel CA, Khawar KM, Mirici S, Arslan O, Ozcan S. 2006. Induction of ex vitro adventitious roots on soft wood cuttingsof Centaurea tchihatcheffii tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey using Indole 3-Butyric Acid and $\alpha$ -Naphthalene Acetic Acid. Inter J Agri & Bio 8: 66-69.
  6. Palanisamy K, Kumar P. 1997. Effect of position, size of cuttings and environmental factors on adventitious rooting in neem (Azadirachtu indica A. Juss). For Eco & Manag 98: 277-280.
  7. Satyavati GV. 1991. Guggulipid: a promising hypolipidemic agent from gum guggal (Commiphora wightii). In: Economic and Medicinal Plant Research (Wagner H, Farnsworth NR, eds) London, Academic Press, pp 48-82.
  8. Singh P, Sharma ML, Mukherjee S. 1989. Effect of Indole butyric acid on sprouting in plant cuttings of Commiphora wightii (Arnott) Bhandari Indian drugs. Indian Drugs 26: 575-576.
  9. Soundy P, Mpati KW, du Toit ES, Mudau FN, Araya HT. 2008. Influence of cutting position, medium, hormone and season on rooting of Fever Tea (Lippia javanica L.) stem cutting. Medi and Aromatic P Scie and Biotech 2: 114-116.
  10. Tajuddin, Agarwal SK, Tyagi BR, Ram M, Dwivedi S, Kumar S. 1997. Development of the cultivar marusudha of guggul (Commiphora wightii). J Medi Aromatic P Scie 19: 1043-1044.
  11. Titon M, Xavier A, Otoni WC. 2006. Clonal propagation of Eucalyptus grandis using the mini-cutting and micro-cutting techniques. Scientia Forestalis (71): 109-117.
  12. Thosar SL, Yende MR. 2009. Cultivation and Conservation of Guggulu (Commiphora mukul). Anc Sci Life 29: 22-25.
  13. Urizar NL, Moore DD. 2003. Gugulipid: a natural cholesterol- lowering agent. Annu Rev Nutr 23: 303-313.
  14. Cultivation and Harvesting: guggul (Commiphora wightii)
  15. Hartmann HT, Kester DE, Davies FT, Geneve RL. 2002. Plant Propagation, Principles and Practices. 6th ed. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, pp 199-220.
  16. Hartmann HT, Kester DE, Davies JFT, Geneve RL. 2007. Plant Hormones. In: Plant propagation: principles and practices (Hartmann HT, et al, eds). 7th ed. Prentice Hall of India, Nueva Delhi, India, pp 292-320.
  17. House APN, Walker SM, Doran JC. 1996. Improvement and propagation of Backhousia citriodora an essential oil bearing species of commercial potential. In: Tree improvement in sustainable tropical forestry (Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SE, eds) QFRI-IUFRO, Vol 1. Queensland Forestry Research Institute, Gympie, pp 83-84.
  18. IUCN. 2011. "IUCN red list of threatened species" Version 2011. Accessed 7 Sep 2011.
  19. Jacobs WP. 1979. Plant hormones and plant development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York, pp 33.
  20. Kesari V, Krishnamachari A, Rangan L. 2009. Effect of auxins on adventitious rooting from stem cuttings of candidate plus tree Pongamia pinnata (L.), a potential biodiesel plant. Trees 23: 597-604.
  21. Kibbler H, Johnston ME, Williams RR. 2004. Adventitious root formation in cuttings of Backhousia citriodora F. Muell: 1. Plant genotype, juvenility and characteristics of cuttings. Sci Hortic 102: 133-143.
  22. Kumar D, Chandra R, Aishwath OP. 2006. Biomass partitioning and cutting success as influenced by indole butyric acid in softwood cuttings of indian bdellium [Commiphora wightii (Arnot.) Bhand.] Rev Bras Pl Med Botucatu 8: 49-52.
  23. Kumar D, Jha BK, Chandra R. 2002. Response to auxins and planting time on the regeneration of stem cuttings of Commiphora wightii (Indian bdellium). J Tro Medil Pl 3: 253-258.
  24. Mertia RS, Nagarajan M. 2000. Successful rooting in cuttings of Commiphora wightii (Arnott.) Bhand. Annals Arid Zone 39: 87-88.
  25. Aeschbacher RA, Schiefelbein JW, Benfey PN. 1994. The Genetic and Molecular Basis of Root Development. Annual Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 45: 25-45.
  26. Chandra R, Kumar D Jha BK. 2001. Rooting behaviour of stem cuttings of Commiphora wightii Indian bdellium. J Tro Medi Plants 2: 269-274.
  27. Diwakar Y, Umesha K. 2011. Studies on Vegetative Propagation of guggul (Commiphora wightii Arnott). Bangalore University of Agricultural Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, pp 88.
  28. Dennis TJ, Yadava BBL, Joseph TG, Mishra KP. 1980. Pharmacognostic study of the gum oleo-resin of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhand. Bull Med Ethn Bot Res 1: 72-79.
  29. Fay M. 1992. Conservation of rare and endangered plants using in -vitro methods. In Vitro Cellular Develop Bio 28: 1-4.