Characteristics of expansive soils improved with cement and fly ash in Northern Thailand

  • Voottipruex, Panich (Department of Technical Training in Civil Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok) ;
  • Jamsawang, Pitthaya (Department of Civil Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok)
  • Received : 2013.05.04
  • Accepted : 2013.12.07
  • Published : 2014.05.25


This paper studies the swelling and strength characteristics of unimproved and improved expansive soils in terms of the swell potential, swelling pressure, rate of secondary swelling, unconfined compressive strength and California bearing ratio (CBR). The admixtures used in this study are locally available cement and fly ash. The soils used in this study were taken from the Mae Moh power plant, Lampang Province, in northern Thailand. A conventional consolidation test apparatus was used to determine the swelling of the soil specimen. The optimum admixture contents are determined to efficiently reduce the swelling of unimproved soil. The rate of secondary swelling for unimproved soil is within the range of highly plastic montmorillonite clay, whereas the specimens improved with optimum admixture contents can be classified as non-swelling kaolinite. A soil type affects the swelling pressure. Expansive soil improvement with fly ash alone can reduce swelling percentage but cannot enhance the unconfined compressive strength and CBR. The strength and swelling characteristics can be predicted well by the swelling percentage in this study.



  1. Alawaji, H.A. (1999), "Prediction of swell characteristics of sand - bentonite mixtures", Proceedings of 11th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanic and Geotechnical Engineering, Seoul, Korea, August.
  2. Al-Homoud, A., Basma, A., Husein Malkavi, A. and Al-Bashabshah, M. (1995), "Cyclic swelling behavior of clays", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 121(7), 562-565.
  3. Al-Rawas, A.A., Guba, I. and McGown, A. (1998), "Geological and engineering characteristics of expansive soils and rock in northern Oman", Eng. Geol., 50(3-4), 267-281.
  4. ASTM Designation D 4546 (1996), Standard Test Methods for One-Dimensional Swell or Swell Settlement Potential of Cohesive Soils, ASTM Annual Book of Standards, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
  5. ASTM D 2166 (2000), Standard Test Method for Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive Soil, ASTM Annual Book of Standards, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
  6. ASTM D 1883 (2007), Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils, ASTM Annual Book of Standards, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
  7. ASTM Designation D 698-12 (2012), Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort, ASTM Annual Book of Standards, West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
  8. Basma, A.A. and Tuncer, E.R. (1991), "Effect of lime on volume change and compressibility of expansive clays", Transportation Res. Rec., Transportation Research Record No. 1295, pp. 52-61.
  9. Bin-Shafique, S., Edil, T., Benson, C. and Senol, A. (2004), "Incorporating a fly ash stabilized layer into pavement design-Case study", Proceedings of ICE-Geotechnical Engineering, 157(4), 239-249.
  10. Chen, F.H. (1988), Foundations on Expansive Soils, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA.
  11. Cokca, E. (2001), "Use of class C-fly ashes for the stabilization of an expansive soils", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, 127(7), 568-573.
  12. Consoli, N.C., Montardo, J.P., Prietto, P.D.M., and Pasa, G.S. (2002), "Engineering behavior of sand reinforced with plastic waste", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, 128(6), 462-472.
  13. Dakshinamurthy, V. (1978), "A new method to predict swelling using hyperbola equation", J. South East Asian Society of Soil Eng. - Geotech. Eng., 9(1), 29-38.
  14. Daniel, D.E. and Wu, Y.K. (1993), "Compacted clay liners and covers for arid sites", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 119(2), 223-237.
  15. Day, R.W. (1994), "Swell-shrink behavior of compacted clay", J. Geotech. Eng., ASCE, 120(3), 618-623.
  16. Erguler, Z.A. and Ulusay, E. (2003), "A simple test and predictive models for assessing swell potential of Ankara (Turkey) clay", Eng. Geol., 67(3-4), 331-352.
  17. Jelisic, N. and Leppanen, M. (2003), "Mass stabilization of organic soils and soft clay", Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Grouting and Ground Treatment, New Orleans, LA, USA, February.
  18. Kumar, A., Walia, B.S. and Mohan, J. (2006), "Compressive strength of fiber reinforced highly compressible clay", Construct. Build. Mater., 20(10), 1063-1068.
  19. Lambe, T.W. and Whitman, R.V. (1979), Soil Mechanics, Wiley, New Delhi, USA.
  20. Lin, K.Q. and Wong, I.H. (1999), "Use of deep mixing to reduce settlement at bridge approaches", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, 125(4), 309-320.
  21. Lorenzo, G.A. and Bergado, D.T. (2004), "Fundamental parameters of cement-admixed clay-new approach", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, 130(10), 1042-1050.
  22. Lorenzo, G.A. and Bergado, D.T. (2006), "Fundamental characteristics of cement-admixed clay in deep mixing", J. Mater. Civil Eng., ASCE, 18(2), 161-174.
  23. Maher, M.H. and Ho, Y.C. (1994), "Mechanical properties of kaolinite-fiber soil composite", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, 120(8), 1381-1393.
  24. Miura, N., Horpibulsok, S. and Nagaraj, T.S. (2001), "Engineering behavior of cement stabilized clay at high water content", Soil. Found., 41(5), 33-45.
  25. Nelson, J.D. and Miller, D.J. (1992), Expansive Soils - Problems and Practices in Foundation and Pavement Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA.
  26. Porbaha, A., Tanaka, H. and Kobayashi, M. (1998), "State of the art in deep mixing technology, Part II: Applications", Ground Improvement, 2(3), 125-139.
  27. Prabakar, J., Dendorkar, N. and Morchale, R.K. (2004), "Influence of fly ash on strength behavior or typical soils", Construct. Build. Mater., 18(4), 263-267.
  28. Rao, N.S. and Kodandarmaswamy, K. (1980), "The prediction of settlements and heave in clays", Can. Geotech. J., 17(4), 623-631.
  29. Rotta, G.V., Consoli, N.C., Prietto, P.D.M., Coop, M.R. and Graham, J. (2003), "Isotropic yielding in an artificially cemented soil cured under stress", Geotechnique, 53(5), 493-501.
  30. Santoni, R.L., Tingle, J.S. and Webster, S. (2001), "Engineering properties of sand fiber mixtures for road construction", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, 127(3), 258-268.
  31. Seed, H.B., Woodward, R.J. and Lundgren, R. (1962), "Prediction of swelling potential for compacted clays", J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., ASCE, 88(3), 53-87.
  32. Shahid, A. (2006), "Large-scale oedometer for assessing swelling and consolidation behavior of Al-Qatif clay", Expansive Soils Recent Advances in Characterization and Treatment, Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK.
  33. Sridharan, A. and Gurtug, Y. (2004), "Swelling behavior of compacted fine-grained soils", Eng. Geol., 72(1-2), 9-18.
  34. Sridharan, A., Sreepada Rao, A. and Rivapullaiah, P.V. (1986), "Swelling pressure of clays", Geotech. Testing J., ASTM, 9(1), 24-33.
  35. Sukontasukkul, P. and Jamsawang, P. (2012), "Use of steel and polypropylene fibers to improve flexural performance of deep soil-cement column", Construct. Build. Construct. Mater., 29(1), 201-205.
  36. Tastan, E.O., Edil, T.B., Benson, C. and Aydilek, H.A. (2011), "Stabilization of organic soils with fly ash", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., ASCE, 137(9), 819-833.
  37. Trzebiatowski, B.D., Edil, T.B. and Benson, C.H. (2005), "Case study of subgrade stabilization using fly ash: State Highway 32, Port Washington, Wisconsin", Recycled Materials in Geotechnics (GSP 127), ASCE, Reston, VA, USA.
  38. Voottipruex, P., Suksawat T., Bergado, D.T. and Jamsawang, P. (2011), "Numerical simulations and parametric study of SDCM and DCM piles under full scale axial and lateral loads", Comput. Geotech., 38(3), 318-329.
  39. Yong, R.N., Boonsinsuk, P. and Wong, G. (1986), "Formulation of backfill material for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault", Can. Geotech. J., 23(2), 216-228.

Cited by

  1. Use of cement based grout with glass powder for deep mixing vol.137, 2017,
  2. Effect of relative density on the shear behaviour of granulated coal ash vol.10, pp.2, 2016,
  3. Investigation of immersion influence on dynamic properties of high-speed railway subgrade with semi-rigid waterproof functional layer through field-excitation testing vol.55, pp.1, 2018,
  4. Research on Wetting-Drying Cycles’ Effect on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Expansive Soil Improved by OTAC-KCl vol.2015, 2015,
  5. Strength behavior and microstructural characteristics of soft clay stabilized with cement kiln dust and fly ash residue vol.141, 2017,
  6. Strength properties of an epoxy resin and cement-stabilized silty clay soil vol.114, 2015,
  7. Clay concrete and effect of clay minerals types on stabilized soft clay soils by epoxy resin vol.151, 2018,
  8. Assessment of the effect of sulfate attack on cement stabilized montmorillonite vol.10, pp.6, 2016,
  9. Soil water characteristic curve and improvement in lime treated expansive soil vol.8, pp.5, 2015,
  10. Vibration characterization of fully-closed high speed railway subgrade through frequency: Sweeping test vol.88, 2016,
  11. Soil modification by addition of cactus mucilage vol.8, pp.5, 2015,
  12. Strength properties of epoxy resin–soil–cement mixtures vol.170, pp.3, 2017,
  13. An analytical investigation of soil disturbance due to sampling penetration vol.9, pp.6, 2015,
  14. Laboratory investigations on the swelling behavior of composite expansive clays stabilized with shallow and deep clay-cement mixing methods vol.148, 2017,
  15. Stabilization of expansive soil using industrial wastes vol.12, pp.1, 2014,
  16. Consolidation deformation of Baghmisheh marls of Tabriz, Iran vol.12, pp.4, 2014,
  17. Effect of clay mineral types on the strength and microstructure properties of soft clay soils stabilized by epoxy resin vol.15, pp.2, 2014,
  18. Reuse of dredged sediments as pavement materials by cement kiln dust and lime treatment vol.15, pp.4, 2014,
  19. Dynamic Characterization of Sand Stabilized with Cement and RHA and Reinforced with Polypropylene Fiber vol.31, pp.7, 2014,
  20. Stabilization of oily contaminated clay soils using new materials: Micro and macro structural investigation vol.20, pp.3, 2014,
  21. Unconfined Compressive and Splitting Tensile Strength of Dredged Sediments Stabilized with Cement and Fly Ash vol.856, pp.None, 2014,
  22. Reducing Compressibility of the Expansive Soil by Microbiological-Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation vol.2021, pp.None, 2014,
  23. Strength and Road Performance of Superabsorbent Polymer Combined with Cement for Reinforcement of Excavated Soil vol.2021, pp.None, 2014,
  24. Repurposing of stabilised dredged lakebed sediment in road base construction vol.21, pp.7, 2014,
  25. Optimal design of mixing ratios of modifiers for disintegrated carbonaceous mudstone vol.26, pp.4, 2014,
  26. Mechanical and microstructural properties of dredged sediments treated with cement and fly ash for use as road materials vol.22, pp.11, 2014,